References relevant to Spelling
and see the archive of publications on the website of the Spelling Society
For other pages on Spelling and Spelling reform see
Spelling Index Page
It is a pity that past work often gets forgotten or
else misrepeated like Russian gossip, and it is often good to go back
to sources. These references relevant to English spelling reform were
published before 1991, but include the classics, and are still worth consideration. A shorter
list is in preparation, but the longer list here should not be
of English spelling and literacy
2. Needs and abilities of
learners, readers and writers
4. Historical, curious and funny
5. Clues that reformers should
6. Spelling reform and
reformers (not a list of proposals)
7. Spelling and
(There are some chapter references referring to VYule's thesis on
SOCIETY AND SPELLING, which includes 70 more pages of references.
Some Dewey numbers are also included for easeir reference. )
Note. There is also an excellent bibliography which accompanied a
1992 SSS Submission to the (British) National Curriculum Council:
JSSS 1993/1, pp.8-9
1. 35 references on
NATURE OF ENGLISH SPELLING
Albrow, K. H. 1972. The English Writing system: notes towards a
description. London: Longmans. U428.1A344E.
Bergeron, D. 1990. Heteronyms.English Today. 6. 4. 39-44. Chapter
Bolinger, D. L. 1946. Visual morphemes. Language, 22: 333-340.
Bormuth, J.R. 1975. Reading literacy: its definition and
assessment. In J. B. Carroll & J. Chall, J. (Eds.) Toward a
literate society. New York: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 4.
Bruner, J. & O'Dowd, D. 1958. A note on the informativeness of
parts of words. Language & Speech. 1: 98-101. Chapter 5.
Carroll, J. B. and Chall, J. S. 1975. Toward a literate society.
NY: McGraw-Hill. Chapters 2 & 10.
Chambers Scots Dictionary. 1911. compiledby A. Warrack & W.
Grant. Edinburgh. W & R. Chambers. Chapter 3.
Chomsky, C. 1970. Reading, writing and phonology. Harvard
Educational Review, 40.:287-309. Chapter 3.
Chomsky, N. & Halle, M. 1968. The sound pattern of English NY:
Harper & Row.Chapters 3, 4, 7, 8.
Dewey, G. 1971. English spelling: Roadblock to reading. NY:
Teachers College Press. Chapter 3.
Dewey, Godfrey, 1963. English heterography. NY: Lake Placid Club
Education Foundation. Chapter 3.
Dictionary of foreign words in English. 422.4B649D Chapters 3,
du Feu, F. 1968. Spelling reform and etymology. (privately
printed.) Chapter 3.
Dunn-Rankin, P. 1978. The visual characteristics of words.
Scientific American. 238: 122-130. Chapter 5.
Fowler, H. W. F. 1926, 1937. A dictionary of modern English usage.
London: Oxford University Press. (revised). Chapters 3, 7.
Mencken, H. L. 1963. The American Language. Abridged edition,
editor R. J. McDavid. NY: Knopf. Chapter 7.
Miller, G. A. 1988. The challenge of universal literacy. Science,
9 Sept. 1293-1259. Chapters 8, 10.
Morris, Joyce M. (1990) The Morris-Montessori Word List . London:
London Montessori Centre. Chapter 6.
Ogden, C. K. 1930. The general Basic English Dictionary. London:
Evans Brothers. Chapter 2,
Oxford Concise Dictionary 1926, 1935,
Schonell, Fred. J. 1932 and 25 reprints up to 1966. The essential
spelling list. Melbourne: Macmillan. Chapter 3.
Scottish Council for Research in Education. 1961. Studies in
Spelling. University of London Press. Chapter 3.
Selmon, M., Dunn, C & Kerek, A. 1987. Functional load,
therapeutic change, and the syntactic distribution of English
homonyms. Linguistics 25: 765-784. Chapter 3.
Smelt, Elsie. 1976. Speak, spell and read English. Melbourne:
Longman. Chapter 3.
The Budget Macquarie Dictionary. 1982. NSW: Macquarie Library.
Chapters 3, 7.
Thorndike, E. L. & Lorge. 1944. A teachers' word book of
30,000 words NY. Chapter 3.
Tune, Newell W. 1975. Homophones, homographs & heterographs -
the deceitful words of English. North Hollywood, CA: Spelling
Progress Bulletin. Chapter 3.
Upward, C. 1987a. Heterographs in English. Journal of the
Simplified Spelling Society. 1.18-25. Chapter 3.
Upward, Christopher. 1984. Redundancy in English spelling.
Language Monthly 13: 26-28. Chapters 3, 5.
Vachek, J. 1982. English orthography: a functionalist approach. In
W. Haas (Ed.) op cit. 418H112S. Chapter 3.
Vallins, G. H. 1965. English Spelling. Revised by D. G. Scragg.
London: André Deutsch. Chapter 3.
Venezky, R. L. 1967. English orthography: its graphical structure
and its relation to sound. Reading Research Quarterly, 2: 75-106.
Venezky, R. L. 1970a. The Structure of English Orthography. The
Hague: Mouton.M421.4V447S. Chapter 3.
Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language.
(prior to 1957)
West, M. A dictionary of spelling.: British and American. London:
Longmans. Chapter 7.
Wijk. A.1966. Rules of pronunciation for the English language
London: O.U.P. Chapters 3, 7.
Yule, V. 1981a. Fowler's 'English Usage' revisited. Spelling
Progress Bulletin 21.4: 4-7. Chapter 3.
Back to top of page
Needs and abilities of learners, readers and writers
Many of these are also directly relevant to Part 6. 'Clues to
Spelling Reform'. These references are not listed for everybody to
read them all - most of them may be hard for the ordinary reader to
find, and for some aspects, there will be more uptodate reserch
findings, altho they coroborate the erlier reserch. But everyone
should look at least at the range of their titles, to realise that
there is more to helping lerners, readers and spellers than simply
trying to match sounds to letters consistently.
Adams, M . 1981. What good is orthographic redundancy? In H.Singer
and O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.), Perception of print. 198-221. Hillsdale,
Allport, D. A. 1979. Word recognition in reading. In Kolers,
Wrolstad and Bouma, op.cit.
Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A., & Wilkinson, I.
A. G. 1985. Becoming a nation of readers: the report of the
Commission on Reading. Washington, DC: National Institute of
Ashton-Warner, S. 1963. Teacher. London: Secker and Warburg.
Baddeley, A. D. 1986. Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. Chapter 5.
Baker, R. G. 1980. Orthographic awareness. In U. Frith, (Ed.)
op.cit. Chapter 7
Baron, J. & Hodge, J. 1978. Using spelling-sound
correspondences without trying to learn them. Visible Language, 12:
55-70. Chapter 5.
Baron, J. & Treiman, R. 1980. Use of orthography in reading
and learning to read. in J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky, op.cit.
Chapters 5, 6.
Baron, J. ,Treiman, R., Wilf, J. & Kellman, P. 1980. Spelling
and reading by rules. In U. Frith U (ed.) Cognitive processes in
spelling. London: Academic Press.
Baron, J. 1977b. Mechanisms for pronouncing printed words. In D.
LaBerge & J. Samuels, (Eds.) Basic processes in reading:
perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 428.4S955B.
Baron, J. 1979. Orthographic and word-specific mechanisms in
children's reading of words. Child Development, 50,: 60-72. Chapter
Barr, R. 1974-5. The effect of instruction on pupil reading
strategies. Reading Research Quarterly 4: 557-582. Chapter 6.
Barron ,R. W., Treiman,R., Wilf, J. & Kellman, P. 1980.
Spelling and reading by rules. Chapter 5.
Barron, R. W. 1980. Visual andphonological strategies in reading
and spelling. In U. Frith (Ed.) op. cit. 195-214. Chapter 5.
Barron, R.W. & Baron, J. 1977. How children get meaning from
printed words. Child Development. 48: 587-594. Chapter 6.
Beech, J. R. & Colley, A. (Eds.) 1987. Cognitive approaches to
reading NY.:Wiley. 153.6 B414C. Chapter 5
Beech, J. R. & Harding, L. 1984. Phonemic processing and the
poor reader from a developmental lag viewpoint. Reading Research
Quarterly 19 3: 357-365. Chapter 6
Beech, J. R. 1985. Learning to read: a cognitive approach to
reading and poor reading. London: Croom Helm. 372.43 B414L. Chapter
Bertelson, Paul. (Ed.) 1987. The onset of literacy: cognitive
processes in reading acquisition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Besner, D. & Coltheart, M. 1979. Ideographic and alphabetic
processing in skilled reading of English. Neuropsychologia. 17
467-472. Chapter 2.
Besner, Derek & G. Humphreys, Glyn (Eds.) 1991. Basic
processes in reading: Visual word recognition. Hillsdale, NJ. :
Lawrence Erlbaum. Chapter 4, 5.
Biemiller, A. 1970. The development of the use of graphemic and
contextual information as children learn to read. Reading Research
Quarterly. 675-96. Chapter 6.
Biltmann, F. 1979. Functional analysis of the spelling ability of
children in their third year of school: psychological arguments for
spelling reform. Abstract only in Modern Language Abstracts. Chapter
Bradley, L. & Bryant, P. 1983a. Categorising sounds and
learning to read - a causal connection. Nature, 301, 419-421. Chapter
Bradley, L. 1983b. The organisation of visual, phonological and
motor strategies in learning to read and to spell. In U. Kirk (Ed.)
Neuropsychology of language, reading and spelling. N.Y.: Academic
Press. Chapter 6.
Bradley, L. 1985. Dissociation of reading and spelling behavior.
In D. Douane & C. K. Leong (Eds.) Understanding Learning
Disabilities. NY : Plenum Press. Chapter 6.
Bradshaw, J. L. 1975a. Three interrelated problems in reading: a
review. Memory and Cognition, 3.: 123-134. Chapter 9.
Bradshaw, J. L. 1975b. Are we reading right? New Scientist 6 Feb
:321-323. Chapter 5.
Broadbent, Donald. 1967. Word frequency effect and response bias.
Psychological Review. 74: 1-15. Chapter 5.
Brooks, G. 1980. Deaf schoolchildren, reading and sign language.
Journal of Research in Reading, 3: 98-105. Chapters 5, 6.
Brooks, L. R. & Miller, A. 1979. A comparison of explicit and
implicit knowledge of an alphabet. In P. Kolers, M. Wrolstad, & Bouma, Eds. Vol l. op.cit. Chapter 6.
Bryant, P & Bradley, L. 1980. Why children sometimes write
words which they do not read. In U. Frith (Ed.) Cognitive processes
in spelling. London: Academic Press. Chapter 6.
Bryant, P. & Bradley, L. 1985. Children's reading problems:
psychology and Education. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Chapter 6.
Bryant, P. & Goswami, U. 1987. Phonological awareness and
learning to read. In J. Beech & A. Colley (Eds.) Cognitive
approaches to reading. Chichester: John Wiley. 153.6. B414C. Chapter
Bryant, P. & Impey, L. 1987. The differences between normal
readers and developmental and acquired dyslexics. In P. Bertelson
(Ed.) The onset of literacy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Chapter
Bybee, Joan. 1985. Morphology. A study of the relation between
meaning and form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 415 B993M Chapter 5.
Carbonell de Grompone, M. 1974. Children who spell better than
they read. Academic Therapy Quarterly, 9 281-288.Chapter 5.
Carlisle, J. 1985. The relationship between knowledge of
derivational morphology and spelling ability in fourth, sixth and
eighth grades. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research,
SR-82/83. Chapter 5.
Carlisle, Joanne. 1987. The use of morphological knowledge in
spelling-derived forms by learning-disabled and normal students.
Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR- 105-120.
Carr, T. H. 1986. Perceiving visual language. in K. R. Boff, L.
Kaufman & J. P. Thoma (Eds.) Handbook of perception and human
performance. vol II. Cognitive processes and performance NY: J. Wiley
& Sons. Chapter 5.
Chall, Jeanne. 1983a. Learning to read: the Great Debate. NY:
McGraw-Hill.372.41 C437Le. Chapters 5 & 8.
Chase, P. N. & Parrott, Linda J. (Eds.) 1986. Psychological
aspects of language. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 153.6 C487P
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Chomsky, C. 1971. Write first: read later. Childhood Education.
47: 296-299. Chapter 6.
Chomsky, N. 1970. Phonology and reading. In H. Levin & J. P.
Williams, Eds.) Basic Studies on Reading. NY: Basic Books. U372.41
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Clark, M. 1976. Young fluent readers. London: Heinemann.Chapter
Coltheart M. & Funnel. E. 1987. Reading and writing: one
lexicon or two? In Allport, MacKay et al. op cit. Chapter 5.
Coltheart, M. (Ed.) 1987. The psychology of reading. Attention and
Performance XII . London: Erlbaum. B428.4019C724P. Chapter 5.
Coltheart, M. , Patterson, K. &Marshall, J. C. (Eds.)1980.
Deep dyslexia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Chapter 5.
Coltheart, M. 1978. Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G.
Underwood (Ed.). Strategies of human information processing. London:
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Coltheart, V., Loxon, V., Rickard, M. & Elton, C. 1988.
Phonological recoding in reading for meaning by adults and children.
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Conrad, R. 1972. Speech and reading. In J. F. Kavanagh & I. G.
Mattingly. (Eds.) op. cit. Chapter 5.
Derwing, B. L. & Dow, Maureen L. 1987. Orthography as a
variable in psycholinguistic experiments. In Luelsdorff, P. A. (Ed.)
op.cit. Chapter 5
Doctor, E. A. & Coltheart, M. 1980. Children's use of
phonological encoding when reading for meaning. Memory & Cognition 8: 195-209. Chapter 6.
Downing J. 1979a. Linguistic awareness, English orthography and
reading instruction. Journal of Reading Behavior 10: 103-114. Chapter
Downing, J. & Leong, C-K. 1982. The psychology of reading. NY:
Macmillan Publishing Co. 372.4019 D751P. Chapters 3, 5, 6.
Downing, J. & Thackray, D. 1975. Reading readiness. London:
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Downing, J. & Valtin, R. (Eds.) 1984. Language awareness and
learning to read. Springer. 372.4D751L. Chapter 6.
Downing, J. 1972. A re-examination of W. R. Lee's 'Spelling
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Bulletin. 12 2-4. Chapters 3,5,6.
Downing, J. 1979b. Reading and Reasoning.. Edinburgh: Chambers.
428.4071 D751R. Chapter 6.
Downing, J. 1987b. The transfer of skill in language functions.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 2: 5-12. Chapter 6.
Durkin, D. 1974-1975. A six year study of children who learned to
read in school at the age of four. Reading Research Quarterly, 10:
9-61. Chapter 6.
Ehri, L. C. & Wilce, L. S. 1987. Does learning to spell help
beginners learn to read words? Reading Research Quarterly. 22: 47-65.
Ehri, L. C. 1980. The role of orthography in printed word
learning. In J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky. (Eds.) op cit.
Ehri, L. C. 1984. How orthography alters spoken language
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Ehri, L. C. 1987. Learning to read and spell words. Journal of
Reading Behavior. 19. 1: 7-19. Chapter 6
Ellis, A. (Ed.) 1985. Progress in the psychology of language.
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 401.9 E47P. Chapter 5.
Ellis, A. & Beattie, G. 1986. The psychology of language and
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Evett, L. J. & Humphreys, G. W. 1981. Use of abstract
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Fisher, 1975. Shapes as cues to word recognition. Visible
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Flesch, Rudolf . 1955. Why Johnny can't read. NY: Harper & Row. 372.4 F611Wh. Chapter 8.
Fowler, C.A., Shankweiler, D. & Liberman, I. Y. 1979.
Apprehending spelling patterns for vowels: a developmental study.
Language & Speech 22: 243-252. Chapter 6.
Fowler, Carol. 1981. Some aspects of language perception by eye:
the beginning reader. In O. Tzeng & H. Singer (Eds.) op. cit.
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Frith, U. 1980. Unexpected spelling problems. In U. Frith (Ed.) op
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Frith, Uta. 1978. From print to meaning and from print to sound,
or how to read without knowing how to spell. Visible Language 12:
43-54. Chapter 5.
Frost, R. 1989. Orthography and phonology: the psychological
reality of orthographic depth. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on
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Gibson, E .J. & Levin. H. 1975. The psychology of reading.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chapters 4, 5, 6.
Gibson, E. J., Shurcliff, A., & Yonas, A. 1970. Utilization of
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Gibson, E. L. & Guinet, L. 1971. Principles of inflections in
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Gillooly, W. B. 1973. The influence of writing system
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Glushko, R. J. 1981. Principles for pronouncing print. In A. M.
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International information about literacy, reforms and
comparisons is essential for English spelling reform
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Orthography. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 17. 2: 6-8. Chapter
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UP TO 1992
Urdaneta, I. P. 1982. The history of Spanish orthography.
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8-14. Chapter 7.
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Bulletin 13 3. 14-15. Chapter 7.
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second, and third grade Finnish children. Journal of Educational
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Children's and adult's use of spelling-sound information in three
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Weinberg, W. 1975. Special problems of the Hebrew spelling
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Wen Hua 1974.. On reforming written Chinese. Spelling Progress
Bulletin. 3 Chapter 7.
Williams, E. B. 1962. From Latin to Portuguese: historical
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Yule, V. 1991. Indonglish. English Today. 26. 7: 42. Chapter
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and funny pieces N 61
Barkley, William. 1967. A 20th century look at the New English
of 1066. Spelling Progress Bulletin Summer. Chapter 8.
Benson, 1990. A language in decline? English Today. 6 4.
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Bodmer, F. 1955. The Loom of Language. London: Allen &
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mankind. London: Hutchinson. Chapter 2
Fletcher, J. M. & Upton, C. A. 1988. The use of abbreviated
English in Oxford 1483-1660. Journal of the Simplified Spelling
Society. 1 13-17. Chapter 8.
Follick, Mont. 1965 The case for spelling reform London: Sir
Isaac Pitman & Sons. Chapter 8.
Franklin, B. 1768b. cited by Newell Tune, 1975. Homophones,
Homographs and Heterographs. 2nd Edn. N. Hollywood, CA: Spelling
Progress Bulletin. Chapter 3.
Franklin, Benjamin. 1768a. A Reformed Mode of Spelling. A
Scheme for a New Alphabet and reformed mode of Spelling....written
in the Characters of the Alphabet. Chapters 7, 8.
Gil, Alexander, 1619. Lognonomica Anglica. (See the account of
'one of the most brilliant spelling cranks of his age', and
teacher of Milton, in A. N. Wilson's The life of John Milton,
Oxford, O.U.P. 1983. ) Chapter 7.
Grandgent, C. H. 1964. Numeric reform in Nescioubia. Spelling
Progress Bulletin. 4.3:5-6. Chapter 8, 10.
Hart, John. 1569 . An Orthographie, conteyning the due order
and reason, howe to write or painte thimage of manne's voice,
moste like to the life or nature. London: W. Serres. Chapters 7 ,
Hildreth, G. 1973. Puns in Shakespeare. Spelling Progress
Bulletin. 13 .4: 3-6. Appendix 7.
Hodges, Richard. 1644. The English Primrose. London: Richard
Cotes. Chapter 7.
Johnson, Samuel. 1755 . Preface to A Dictionary of the English
language: in which the words are deduced from their originals.
London: Knapton; Longman; Hitch & Hawes; Millar; &
Dodsley. Chapters 1, 5.
Kennedy, A. G. 1972. Bibliography of books on the English
language prior to 1922 Harvard/Yale University Press. Has 5 pages
on spelling reform alphabets and simplified spelling - quite a
number! Not available. Would be relevant to chapter 7.
Kipling , Rudyard. How the alphabet was made. Just-so Stories.
Lepsius, Richard. 1863/1981. Standard alphabet for reducting
unwritten languages and foreign graphic systems to a uniform
orthography in European letters. Edited by J. Kemp. Amsterdam:
John Benjamins. Chapter 2.
Lewin, R. 1983. The biology of algae and other verses. NY:
University Press of America. Chapter 3, 5.
Looby, C. 1984. Phonetics and politics: Franklin's alphabet as
a political design. Eighteenth Century Studies. 18: 1-34. Chapter
Miller, E. L. 1900. Literacy study and character formation.
School Review. 8 285-291. Chapter 8.
Milton, John.1644. Areopagitica Prose Works. Chapter 8.
Mulcaster, Richard. 1582. The Elementarie. Chapter 8.
Paton, J. 1891. John G. Paton, D.D., Missionary to the New
Hebrides London: Hodder & Stoughton. on how a Chief taught his
people the Alphabet
Pierson, R. H. 1979. The Chicago Tribune's adventures in
spelling. Spelling Progress Bulletin 19 3. 19. Chapter 7.
Porter, Gene Stratton. Laddie. See for Learning spelling and
community spelling bees c 1870
Premack, D. 1971. Language in a chimpanzee? Science 172:
Read, K, 1966. Devising the Shaw Script. Spelling Progress
Bulletin. 6 .2: 11. Chapter 7.
Read, Kingsley.1962. Androcles and the Lion by Bernard Shaw,
published in the Shaw alphabet by Penguin, 1962. Chapter 2.
Reed, William 1982. Spelling and Parliament. In Newell Tune
(Ed.) Spelling reform, a comprehensive survey. North Hollywood,
Calif: Spelling Progress Bulletin. pp 119-122. Chapter 8.
Scragg, D. G. (date? of later edition?), A history of English
spelling. Manchester University Press. Chapter 3.
Simplified Spelling Society. 1924. The best method of teaching
children to read and write: reports of experiments conducted in
sixteen schools. (and in SSS pamphlet 7.1942) London: Simplified
Spelling Society. Chapters 6, 7.
Skeat, Walter W. 1892. Principles of English Etymology .
Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chapter 3.
Smoker, Barbara. 1959. GBS and the ABC. The story of Bernard
Shaw's Will. Modern Drama. 139-46. Chapters 7, 8.
Trench, Richard Chevenix. 1856. Changes in the spelling of
English words. English, past and present. London: Parker &
Son. Chapter 3.
Trenití, G. N. The Chaos. A version of this appears in
the Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 1989, Summer,
17-21. Chapter 3. Appendix.
Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens). Simplified Spelling in Ancient
Egypt. reprinted in Spelling Progress Bulletin 15.3.1975. Chapters
Twain, Mark. 1906. Spelling and Pictures. In The Works of Mark
Twain,vol 18: 315-6. NY: Gabriel Wells. Edited version in B. Iles
M.S. Thesis, in Spelling Progress Bulletin 1970. 10, pp19-20.
Venezky, R.L. 1977. Research on reading processes: an
historical perspective. American Psychologist, 32: 339-345.
Webster, Noah. 1789. Dissertations and The reforming of
spelling. In Old South Leaflets 8. No 196. Boston: Directors of
the Old South Work. 1908, cited by Venezky , From Webster to Rice
to Roosevelt, in U. Frith,(Ed.) op.cit, 1980.Chapters 7, 8.
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reformers should consider
52 References up to 1991
Note: For all of these see also:
Yule V(1991) Orthography and Reading: Spelling and Society,
unpublished doctoral thesis, Faculty of Education, Monash University,
Australia. UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48106.
1992.1416. Order No.9231850.
and Yule V (1986) 'The design of spelling to meet needs and abilities'
in Harvard Educational Review, 56/3, pp 278 - 297.
1. CHILDREN'S 'NATURAL' SPELLING
q.v. especially Read and Yule
2. CHOMSKY AND RELATED THEORIES OF THE ADVANTAGES OF TO
Smith Philip. 1980a. In defence of conservatism in English
orthography. Visible Language 14: 122-136. Chapters 3, 5.
Smith, P. T. 1980b. Linguistic information in spelling. In U.
Frith (Ed.) op cit.
Sampson, G. 1981. The advantages of English spelling. Revista
Canaria de Studios Ingleses. (University of Tenerife) 3 : 1-13.
Chapters 3, 5.
Steinberg, D. D. 1973. Phonology, reading, and Chomsky and Halle's
optimal orthography. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2:
239-258. Chapter 3.
Yule, Valerie. 1978. Is there evidence for Chomsky's
interpretation of English
3. DESIGN OF NEW WRITING SYSTEMS
Venezky. R. L. 1977. Principles for the design of practical
writing systems. In Joshua A. Fishman (Ed.) op cit. 411 F537A
4. DESIGNING SPELLING TO MEET HUMAN NEEDS AND ABILITIES
Miller, G A. 1956. The magical number seven plus or minus two:
some limits on capacity for processing information. Psychological
Review 63: 81-9. Chapter 5.
Pitman, Sir James and St. John, John. 1969. Alphabets and Reading.
London: Pitman. Chapters 3, 7, 8.
Pitman, Sir James. 1975. Some principles governing improvement of
the visible language. Spelling Progress Bulletin 15.1. Chapter 6.
Shannon, C. E. 1951. Prediction and entropy of printed English.
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 50-64. Chapter 5.
Wing, Alan & Baddeley Alan (1980) 'Spelling errors in
handwriting: a corpus and a distributional analysis' in Uta Frith
(Ed.) Cognitive Processes in Spelling, London and NY: Academic Press.
I have made an unpublished analysis of the types of errors AND(AND?
YES) slips in the corpus. 04 Yule V. 1984a. English as an
international language, and its spelling. Language Monthly 8 24-25.
Y ule, V. 1990. The design of spelling to meet abilities and needs
of adult readers. In P. H. Peters (Ed.) Frontiers of Style. Sydney:
Macquarie University Dictionary Research Centre. Chapter 9.
Yule, V. 1982a. Spelling reform: arguments pro and con. In N. Tune
(Ed.) op.cit. 9-18. Chapter 7.
Yule, V. 1982b. An international reform of English spelling and
its advantages. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 4: 9-22. Chapter
Yule, V. 1982d. Spelling as technology. Rewritten by John Bell
(technology writer) and published as 'Shorter words mean faster
reading' in New Scientist 96 1335. 356-7. As Quine has commented in
one of his books, concerning a magazine rewriting of his own work,
'here is the uncorrupted version'.
Yule, V. 1984b. Research and development in spelling reform.
Spelling Progress Quarterly. 1.2: 6-13. Chapter 7.
Yule, V. 1986a. The design of spelling to match needs and
abilities, Harvard Educational Review, 56: 278-297.
Allerton, D. J. Orthography and dialect. In W. Haas (Ed.) Standard
languages spoken and written. Manchester: Manchester University
Lauder, Affabeck. 1965. Less stalk Strine. Sydney: Ure Smith.
Melchers, G. 1987. Spelling and dialect. In P.A. Luelsdorff (Ed.)
op cit. Chapter .2
Carvell, Robert. 1975. Reading comprehension and regularized
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Kuçera, H. & Francis, W. N. 1967. Computational
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Rayner, K. & Kaiser, J. 1975. Reading mutilated text. Journal
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Strange, 1979. The effect of orthographic anomalies upon reading
behavior. Journal of Reading Behavior. 11: 153-161. Chapter 9.
Yule, V. & Greentree , S. 1986b. Readers' adaptation to
spelling change. Human Learning 5: 229-241. Chapter 9.
Yule, V. & MacKay, C. K. Practice effects for adults and poor
readers in reading text in a modified spelling . (Unpublished
manuscript). Chapter 5, 9.
Yule, V. 1989b. Two experimental versions of 'cut' spelling.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 3.2: 30. Chapter 9.
7. EXPERIMENTS IN REGULARISED SPELLINGS IN SCHOOLS
Lane, A. 1974. Severe reading disability and the Initial Teaching
Alphabet. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7: 23-27. Chapter 6.
Martin, J. H. & Friedberg, A. 1986, Writing to read. NY,
Warner Books. Chapters 6, 7.
Martin, John Henry & Friedberg, Ardy (1986) Writing to Read: a
parents' guide to the new early learning program for young children,
New York: Warner Books.
Martin, John Henry (1981) 'The evolution and use of a phonemically
consistent alphabet' in Spelling Progress Bulletin. 21/4, pp
Thackray, D. V. 1980. Readiness to read with i.t.a. and t.o.
London: Chapman. Chapter 6.
Thackray, Derek. 1971. Reading for meaning with i.t.a and TO.
London: Geoffrey Chapman. Chapter 6.
8. EXPERIENCES WITH SPELLING REFORM PROPOSALS
9. INFORMATION THEORY
Knowles, F. Information theory and its implications for spelling
reform. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 1 5-13.
10. LINGUISTIC THEORIES
Klima, Edward. 1972. How alphabets might reflect language. In J.
F. Kavanagh & I. Mattingly, (Eds.) op.cit. Chapters 2, 7. 9.
Nida, Eugene A. 1964. Practical limitations
to a phonemic alphabet. In W. A. Smalley (Ed.) op.cit.
11. NATURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Mayzner, M. S., Tresselt, M. E. & Wolin, B. R. 1965. Tables of
frequency counts for various word-length and letter-position
combinations. (digrams, trigrams, etc.) Psychonomic Monograph
Supplements 1, 1965a-1965c. Chapter 3.
Moseley, D & Nicol, C. c 1985. Aurally coded English spelling
dictionary. Wisbeck, Cambridge UK: Learning Development Aids. Chapter
Yule, V. 1980a, 1981. The etymological argument for spelling
reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin 20. 4: 4, 21.3: 7-9. Chapter
Yule, V. 1989a. Children's dictionaries: spelling and
pronunciation. English Today 17. 1: 13-17. Chapters 6, 7.
Yule, V. Homophones in a spelling reform. (Unpublished
manuscript). Chapter 3.
PRECEDENTS - ARABIC NUMERALS AND THE METRIC SYSTEM
Bischoff, G. C. 1975. Improved spelling and the metric system.
Saint Catherine Press. Exerpted in Journal of the Simplified Spelling
Society, 1989 .3.2. 21. Chapter 8.
Zachrisson, R. E. The advantages of an international language.
Reprinted in Spelling Progress Bulletin. 1966.6 4: 14-9. Chapter
13. PRECEDENTS - SEE CROSS-CULTURAL FOR REFORMS IN ORTHOGRAFIES OF
Monteith, M. K. 1977. Paulo Freire's literacy method. Journal of
Reading 628-631. Chapters 6, 7.
14. PSYCHOLOGICAL FINDINGS
Frith, Uta, "Cognitive Processes in Spelling' 1980. Academic
Press. This volume is a 'must' for spelling reformers, to understand
how adults and children spell.
Frith, Uta, "Cognitive Processes in Spelling and their Relevance
to Spelling Reform," Spelling Progress Bulletin, Spring 1982,
15. SHORTHANDS AND PIDGINS
Smith, P. T. & Pattison, H. M. 1980c. English shorthand
systems and abbreviatory conventions: a psychological perspective. In
P. Kolers, M. Wrolstad & H. Bouma (Eds.) op cit. Chapters 2,
Yule, V. 1987b. English spelling and pidgin: examples of
international English spelling. English Today 4 .3: 29-35. Chapter
16. SPELLING PRONUNCIATION
Kerek, A. 1976. The phonological relevance of spelling
pronunciation. Visible Language, 10 .4: 323-338. Chapter 7.
17. SPELLING TRENDS - COMMERCIAL TRADEMARKS
Jacobson, Sven.1966. Unorthodox spellings in American Trademarks.
Stockholm. Almqvist & Wiksell. Chapter 7.
Jaquith, J. R. 1976. Digraphia in advertising: the public as
guinea pig. Visible Language 10 .4: 295-308. Chapter 7.
Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1977. Spellings in commerce: logical?
anathema? Reading World 16: 258-69. Chapter 7.
18. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
Lanham, L. W. 1968. Teaching English as a second language in
Africa. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 8 4 9-12. Chapter 8.
O'Halloran, G. 1982. Spelling: What road to reform? Spelling
Progress Bulletin. 22.4: 16-16. Chapter 2.
O'Halloran, George. 1980. A pedagogical purview of orthography.
Spelling Progress Bulletin. 20.1: 13-15. Chapter 2, 8, 7.
Thonis, E. W. 1970. Teaching reading to non-English speakers.
London: Collier-Macmillan. (Spelling is not in the index.) Chapter
Yule, V. 1984b. Learning English as a double language. Language
Monthly. 13: 23-25. Chapter 8.
Include also from Cornell Kimball's list
Baker, Robert, "An Experimental Study of Attitudes Towards English
Spelling Reform," Spelling Progress Bulletin, Spring 1983,
Barbe, Walter B., Editorial, Spelling Progress Quarterly, Spring
1984, pp.2-3."We cannot forsake standard English overnight, so our
path must be one of moderation. Most obviously, we must remain aware
of how our language is changing, both overtly and subtly. ... Words
like thru, nite, and alien are all around us and demonstrate that our
language is constantly evolving."
Gregersen, Edgar, ìMorphological Consideration in the
Creation of Rational Orthographies," Simplified Spelling Society
Newsletter, Spring 1986, pp.14-17
Hanks, Patrick and Upward, Chris, "Feasibility of Spelling
Reform,î JSSS 1988/2, pp. 24-28
Hofmann, Thomas R, "International Requirements for Spelling
Reform," JSSS 1988/1, pp 20-22
Hutchins, Jean, "Wy dyslexics need simplifyd speling," JSSS
Jolly, C J H, "The Marketability of Spelling Reform," JSSS 1988/2,
Kerr, John S, "The Implication of Spelling Reform for Skilled
Readers,î JSSS 1988/2, p.20
Scragg, Donald G, "English Spelling and its Reform: Some
Observations from a Historical Perspective,î JSSS 1989/2,
pp.4-8 [1988 Inaugural Address]
Stark, David, "Implementing Spelling Reform-An
Introduction,î JSSS, 1989/1, pp.19-20 [a companion piece to
is listed later in the bibliografy]
Upward, Christopher, Editorial, JSSS 1988/1, p.2 [Leapfrogging
Webster] --Editorial, JSSS 1989/2, p.2 [Exploiting
Upward, Christopher, Editorial, JSSS 1988/3, p.2, "Orthografic
Ownrship: an aproach to winng suport for spelng reform?" Simplified
Spelling Society Newsletter, April 1996, pp.6-11."If potential users
needs ar not caterd for, those users canot hav a sense of ownrship
and wil not be esily persuaded to adopt a reformd orthografy."
Wells, John C, "English Accents and their Implications for
Spelling Reform," Simplified Spelling Society Newsletter, Summer
Yule, Valerie, "How to Implement Spelling Reform," Spelling
Progress Bulletin, Fall 1980, pp.10-12. Spelling reform can only be
achieved by looking at what is practicable, not at dogmatic idealism
about what would be perfect; arguments must deal in evidence rather
than in opinion."
SPELLING REFORMS AND
This is not a list of all reform proposals and reformers -
there are thousands. It is a short bibliografy of 43 publications
relevent to spelling reform.
Beech, John. 1983. The effects of spelling change on the adult
reader. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 23, 1. 11-18. Chapter 9.
Bisgard, Helen. 1987. Review of John Henry Martin 'Writing to
Read'. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 1. 26. Chapter
Bliss, C. K. 1965. Semantography , Sydney, Semantography
Publications. C149.94BL12.2 Chapter 2.
Bonnema, Helen. 1961. Writing by sound: a new method of teaching
reading. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 1.3: 7-10. Chapters 5, 8.
Campbell, Ruth, & Colthearth, Max. 1984. Ghandhi, the
nonviolent road to spelling reform? Cognition 17:185-192. Chapter
Campbell, Stuart. 1982. On Esperanto. Spelling Progress Bulletin.
XXII. 3: 4-5. Chapter 7.
Downing, J. 1967. Evaluating the Initial Teaching Alphabet: A
study of the influence of English orthography on learning to read and
write. London: Cassell. U372.41 D75IE. Chapter 6.
Downing, J. 1977. The probability of reading failure in i.t.a. and
t.o. Reading, 11: 3-12. Chapter 6.
Downing, J. 1980. Research on spelling reform. Spelling Progress
Bulletin Spring. 20. 1. pp8-9
Ellis, A. J. 1848. A plea for phonetic spelling. London: Fred
Pitman. Chapter 7.
Freire, Paulo. 1972. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth:
Penguin. C370.1Fre. Chapter 2, 6.
Freire, Paulo. 1974. Education in the practice of freedom. London:
Writers and Readers Co-operative. Chapters, 2, 9.
Fry, E. B. 1964. A diacritical marking system to aid beginning
reading instruction. Elementary English 41: 5. Chapter 6.
Gattegno, Caleb. 1964. Words in Colour system. Forward Trends 7 4:
141-144. Chapter 6.
Gogate , M. N. 1985. Adopting a common script - roman lipi. Times
of India. 23 September. Chapters 7 & 8.
Gogate, M. N. 1988. Roman Lipi Parashad Conference Proceedings.
Bombay. Chapter 7.
Haas, W. (Ed.) 1971. Alphabets for English. Manchester University
Press. Chapter 7.
Harrison, Maurice. 1946. The use of simplified spelling in
teaching infants to read and write. London: Pitman. Chapter 6.
Hildreth, G. 1978. Dictionary respellings of English words.
Spelling Progress Bulletin 18 1 12-15. Chapter 7.
Iles, Betty. 1970. A study of selected systems of augmented
alphabets and simplified spellings. M.S. Thesis. reprinted in
Spelling Progress Bulletin 10 3. 2-26. Chapter 7
Jones, J. K. 1967. Colour Story reading. London: Nelson. Chapter
Laubach, Frank. 1962. Learning English the new way. Syracuse, NY:
New Readers Press. Chapters 6, 8,7.
Lindgren, Harry. 1969. Spelling Reform: a new approach. Sydney:
Alpha Books. Chapter 3, 7.
Martin, John Henry. 1981. The evolution and use of a phonemically
consistent alphabet. Spelling Progress Bulletin 21 4 7-10. Chapters
Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1967. Fourth year results of study with i.t.a.
Spelling Progress Bulletin. 7. 4.: 2-6. Chapter 6.
Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1974. i.t.a. revisited. Reading World 13:
156-60. Chapter 6.
Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1975. Comparative attitudes and achievements
of the 1963 i.t.a. and TO-taught students in the Tenth and Eleventh
Grades. Reading World 14: 425-51. Chapter 6.
Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1976b. Toward a spelling reform. Reading World
16: 81-87. Chapter 7.
Mazurkiewicz, A.J. (Ed.) 1966. The initial teaching alphabet and
the world of English. NY: i.t.a. Foundation. Chapter 6 7.
Paulsen V. 1978. Torskript. San Francisco, CA: Torskript
Publishers. Chapter 7.
Pei, Mario.1968. Preface to A. Tauber's A history of spelling
reform. Reprinted in Spelling Progress Bulletin 8. Chapter 2.
Ripman, W. & Archer, W. 1948. New Spelling. London: Pitman.
Rondthaler, E. and Lais, E. J. 1986. Dictionary of American
spelling: a simplified alternative spelling for the English language,
NY: the American Language Academy. Chapters 3, 7.
Scragg, D. G. 1989. English spelling and its reform: some
observations from a historical perspective. Journal of the Simplified
Spelling Society 2 4-8.
Stark, David, "2-The Principle of Minimal Interference," JSSS
1989/2, pp.22-24:"It may be an emotional response for someone to
dismiss a new spelling as 'peculiar' or 'ridiculous' merely by
looking at it. However, it will be easier to make them look a second
time, and convince them that the new spellings are merely a more
rational advance on the old ones, if the link with traditional
orthography is clear."
Threadgall, Ronald A, ìThe Initial Teaching Alphabet:
Proven Efficiency and Future Prospects,î Journal of the
Simplified Spelling Society 1988/1, pp.18 19
Tune, Newell (Ed.)1982. Spelling reform, a comprehensive survey.
North Hollywood, CA: Spelling Progress Bulletin. Chapters 3 , 7.
Tune, Newell. 1982. Viewpoints on spelling reform. In N. Tune
(Ed.) Spelling reform, a comprehensive survey. North Hollywood, CA:
Spelling Progress Bulletin. pp 48-54. Chapters 7, 8.
Upward, C. , Fletcher, P., Hutchins, J. & Jolly, C. 1990. A
handbook to Cut spelling. Aston, UK. Simplified Spelling Society.
Upward, C. 1987b. Cut Speling - a linguistic universl? Journal of
the Simplified Spelling Society. 2 17-24.Chapter 9.
Upward, C. 1988. Conflicting efficiency criteria in Cut Speling 1.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 3 17-23. Chapter 9.
Upward, C. 1989. Conflicting efficiency criteria in Cut Speling.
2. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 1 21-29. Chapter
Warburton, F.W. & Southgate, V. 1969. i.t.a.: an independent
evaluation. Edinburgh: Chambers.Chapter 6.
Wijk, Axel. 1959. Regularized English. Stockholm:
Almqvist-Wiksell. Chapters 3, 7.
Wijk. 1975. Regularized English and the teaching of reading.
Unpublished MS. Chapter 3, 7.
Writing to Read (J. H. Martin's project.) Evaluation documents are
provided in ERIC from Tulsa Public Schools, 1985, Portland, Oregon,
1984, 1985, 1986, two Washington schools, 1983, Kettering,
Ohio,1986-1988, Columbia District in Washington, DC, 1985, 1986,
1988, Tampa, Florida, 1987, New Hampshire, and Fort Worth, Texas,
1986, and also for groups of children with learning problems or other
disabilities. Chapter 6.
Yule, Valerie (1980) 'A transitional spelling reform for adults
and learners' in Spelling Progress Bulletin, 20/3, pp 7-10.
Yule V (1982) 'An international reform of English spelling and its
advantages' in Revista Canaria de Estudios Inglese, Tenerife, 4, pp
Yule V(1982) 'Spelling as Technology' in New Scientist. 96/1335,
pp 656-657. (Rewritten by a hostile technical editor, with altered
graphs, and retitled as 'Shorter words make faster reading' - which
is not necessarily true.) .
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7. REFERENCES ON
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Chall, J., Jacobs, V. A. & Baldwin, L. E. 1990. The reading
crisis: why poor children fall behind. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press. 372.6C437R. Chapter 6
Citron, A.F. 1976. English orthography as conspicuous consumption.
National Directory of Sociology of Education & Educational
Sociology, 1, 16-23.Chapter 8.
Crystal, David. 1987a. The world's Englishes. English Today. July
33. Chapter 8.
Davies, Alan. 1989. Is international English an interlanguage?
TESOL Quarterly. 23.3: 447-467. Chapter 8.
Entwistle, Doris. 1977. A sociologist looks at reading. In W.
Otto, C. W. Peters, & N. Peters. (Eds.) Reading problems.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 74-87. F372.43 R287 67211. Chapter
Freire, P. 1987. Literacy, reading, the Word and the World. South
Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey. 428.4F866L. Chapter 2, 6.
Gleick, James. 1987. Chaos. London: Cardinal. Chapters 4 , 8..
Labov, W. & Tobins, C. 1969. The relation of reading failure
to peer group status in urban ghettoes. Teachers College Record. 70
5. Chapter 8.
Liamzon, T. A. 1986. Life-cycle of the New Englishes. English
World-Wide. 37: 77-81. Chapter 8.
Marshall, J. 1987. Cultural and biological context of written
languages. In J. Beech & A. Colley (Eds.) op.cit. Chapter 2.
Okakura, Yoshisaburo. 1932. The future of English as the world
language. Studies in English literature. XII. 4. Tokio: Kenkyusha.
Ong, W. J. 1980. Literacy and orality in our times, in a series on
Literacy and the future of print, Journal of Communication 30:
197-204. Chapter 8.
Pattison, Robert. 1982. On literacy: the politics of the word NY:
O.U.P. 001.2P 321.0 Chapter 8.
Porter, Rosalie. 1990. Forked Tongue - the Politics of Bilingual
Education, NY: Basic Books . Chapters 2, 8.
Postman, N. 1970. The politics of reading. Harvard Educational
Review. Chapter 8.
Resnick D.P. & Resnick, L.B. 1977. The nature of literacy: an
historical exploration. Harvard Educational Review, 47: 370-386.
Spivey, D. 1978. Schooling for the new slavery: Black industrial
education 1868-1915. London: Greenwood Press. 371.9796073.S761S.
Staczek, R. F. 1982. Societal multilingualism. In J. Fishman & G. D. Keller (Eds.) op. cit. Chapter 2.
Stedman, L. R. & Kaestle, C. F. 1977. Literacy and reading
performance in the United States, from 1880 to the present. Reading
Research Quarterly 12: 8-46. Chapter 1.
Teale & Sulzby 1987, in Wagner, D. (ed.) 1987. The future of
literacy in a changing world. Oxford: Pergamon. 370.194 W132. Chapter
Turner, Martin. 1990. Sponsored reading failure. Surrey: IPSET
Educational Unit. Chapter 8.
UNESCO 1965. Literacy as a factor in development. Paris: UNESCO.
UNESCO and UNDP Secretariat. 1976. The experimental world literacy
program: a critical assessment. Paris: UNESCO. Chapter 8.
Veblen, Thorstein. 1899. Theory of the leisure class. Republished
1925 by Allen & Unwin, London.
Vernon, M.D. 1957. Backwardness in reading. London: Cambridge
University Press. Chapter .6
Vernon, M. D. 1971. Reading and its difficulties. London:
Cambridge University Press.
Viereck, W. & Bald, W-D (Eds.) 1986. English in contact with
other languages. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. 420.9 V665E. Chapter
Waples, D. 1967. What reading does to people. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press. Chapter 8.
Yule, V. 1986c. A complement to 'Bullock': the American report
'Becoming a Nation of Readers'. Reading (U.K.) 20. 2.: 82-88. Chapter
Yule, V. 1988c. The importance of spelling for English culture.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 2. 2: 29-31Chapters 3,
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