References relevant to Spelling Reform

and see the archive of publications on the website of the Spelling Society

For other pages on Spelling and Spelling reform see Spelling Index Page

It is a pity that past work often gets forgotten or else misrepeated like Russian gossip, and it is often good to go back to sources. These references relevant to English spelling reform were published before 1991, but include the classics, and are still worth consideration. A shorter list is in preparation, but the longer list here should not be forgotten.


1. Nature of English spelling and literacy

2. Needs and abilities of learners, readers and writers

3. International comparisons

4. Historical, curious and funny pieces

5. Clues that reformers should consider

6. Spelling reform and reformers (not a list of proposals)

7. Spelling and society

(There are some chapter references referring to VYule's thesis on SOCIETY AND SPELLING, which includes 70 more pages of references. Some Dewey numbers are also included for easeir reference. )

Note. There is also an excellent bibliography which accompanied a 1992 SSS Submission to the (British) National Curriculum Council: JSSS 1993/1, pp.8-9

1. 35 references on

Albrow, K. H. 1972. The English Writing system: notes towards a description. London: Longmans. U428.1A344E.

Bergeron, D. 1990. Heteronyms.English Today. 6. 4. 39-44. Chapter 3.

Bolinger, D. L. 1946. Visual morphemes. Language, 22: 333-340. Chapter 5.

Bormuth, J.R. 1975. Reading literacy: its definition and assessment. In J. B. Carroll & J. Chall, J. (Eds.) Toward a literate society. New York: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 4.

Bruner, J. & O'Dowd, D. 1958. A note on the informativeness of parts of words. Language & Speech. 1: 98-101. Chapter 5.

Carroll, J. B. and Chall, J. S. 1975. Toward a literate society. NY: McGraw-Hill. Chapters 2 & 10.

Chambers Scots Dictionary. 1911. compiledby A. Warrack & W. Grant. Edinburgh. W & R. Chambers. Chapter 3.

Chomsky, C. 1970. Reading, writing and phonology. Harvard Educational Review, 40.:287-309. Chapter 3.

Chomsky, N. & Halle, M. 1968. The sound pattern of English NY: Harper & Row.Chapters 3, 4, 7, 8.

Dewey, G. 1971. English spelling: Roadblock to reading. NY: Teachers College Press. Chapter 3.

Dewey, Godfrey, 1963. English heterography. NY: Lake Placid Club Education Foundation. Chapter 3.

Dictionary of foreign words in English. 422.4B649D Chapters 3, 7..

du Feu, F. 1968. Spelling reform and etymology. (privately printed.) Chapter 3.

Dunn-Rankin, P. 1978. The visual characteristics of words. Scientific American. 238: 122-130. Chapter 5.

Fowler, H. W. F. 1926, 1937. A dictionary of modern English usage. London: Oxford University Press. (revised). Chapters 3, 7.

Mencken, H. L. 1963. The American Language. Abridged edition, editor R. J. McDavid. NY: Knopf. Chapter 7.

Miller, G. A. 1988. The challenge of universal literacy. Science, 9 Sept. 1293-1259. Chapters 8, 10.

Morris, Joyce M. (1990) The Morris-Montessori Word List . London: London Montessori Centre. Chapter 6.

Ogden, C. K. 1930. The general Basic English Dictionary. London: Evans Brothers. Chapter 2,

Oxford Concise Dictionary 1926, 1935,

Schonell, Fred. J. 1932 and 25 reprints up to 1966. The essential spelling list. Melbourne: Macmillan. Chapter 3.

Scottish Council for Research in Education. 1961. Studies in Spelling. University of London Press. Chapter 3.

Selmon, M., Dunn, C & Kerek, A. 1987. Functional load, therapeutic change, and the syntactic distribution of English homonyms. Linguistics 25: 765-784. Chapter 3.

Smelt, Elsie. 1976. Speak, spell and read English. Melbourne: Longman. Chapter 3.

The Budget Macquarie Dictionary. 1982. NSW: Macquarie Library. Chapters 3, 7.

Thorndike, E. L. & Lorge. 1944. A teachers' word book of 30,000 words NY. Chapter 3.

Tune, Newell W. 1975. Homophones, homographs & heterographs - the deceitful words of English. North Hollywood, CA: Spelling Progress Bulletin. Chapter 3.

Upward, C. 1987a. Heterographs in English. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 1.18-25. Chapter 3.

Upward, Christopher. 1984. Redundancy in English spelling. Language Monthly 13: 26-28. Chapters 3, 5.

Vachek, J. 1982. English orthography: a functionalist approach. In W. Haas (Ed.) op cit. 418H112S. Chapter 3.

Vallins, G. H. 1965. English Spelling. Revised by D. G. Scragg. London: André Deutsch. Chapter 3.

Venezky, R. L. 1967. English orthography: its graphical structure and its relation to sound. Reading Research Quarterly, 2: 75-106. Chapter 3.

Venezky, R. L. 1970a. The Structure of English Orthography. The Hague: Mouton.M421.4V447S. Chapter 3.

Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language. (prior to 1957)

West, M. A dictionary of spelling.: British and American. London: Longmans. Chapter 7.

Wijk. A.1966. Rules of pronunciation for the English language London: O.U.P. Chapters 3, 7.

Yule, V. 1981a. Fowler's 'English Usage' revisited. Spelling Progress Bulletin 21.4: 4-7. Chapter 3.

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2. Needs and abilities of learners, readers and writers

Many of these are also directly relevant to Part 6. 'Clues to Spelling Reform'. These references are not listed for everybody to read them all - most of them may be hard for the ordinary reader to find, and for some aspects, there will be more uptodate reserch findings, altho they coroborate the erlier reserch. But everyone should look at least at the range of their titles, to realise that there is more to helping lerners, readers and spellers than simply trying to match sounds to letters consistently.

Adams, M . 1981. What good is orthographic redundancy? In H.Singer and O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.), Perception of print. 198-221. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Allport, D. A. 1979. Word recognition in reading. In Kolers, Wrolstad and Bouma, op.cit.

Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A., & Wilkinson, I. A. G. 1985. Becoming a nation of readers: the report of the Commission on Reading. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education. .

Ashton-Warner, S. 1963. Teacher. London: Secker and Warburg. Chapter 6.

Baddeley, A. D. 1986. Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 5.

Baker, R. G. 1980. Orthographic awareness. In U. Frith, (Ed.) op.cit. Chapter 7

Baron, J. & Hodge, J. 1978. Using spelling-sound correspondences without trying to learn them. Visible Language, 12: 55-70. Chapter 5.

Baron, J. & Treiman, R. 1980. Use of orthography in reading and learning to read. in J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky, op.cit. Chapters 5, 6.

Baron, J. ,Treiman, R., Wilf, J. & Kellman, P. 1980. Spelling and reading by rules. In U. Frith U (ed.) Cognitive processes in spelling. London: Academic Press.

Baron, J. 1977b. Mechanisms for pronouncing printed words. In D. LaBerge & J. Samuels, (Eds.) Basic processes in reading: perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 428.4S955B. Chapter 5.

Baron, J. 1979. Orthographic and word-specific mechanisms in children's reading of words. Child Development, 50,: 60-72. Chapter 6..

Barr, R. 1974-5. The effect of instruction on pupil reading strategies. Reading Research Quarterly 4: 557-582. Chapter 6.

Barron ,R. W., Treiman,R., Wilf, J. & Kellman, P. 1980. Spelling and reading by rules. Chapter 5.

Barron, R. W. 1980. Visual andphonological strategies in reading and spelling. In U. Frith (Ed.) op. cit. 195-214. Chapter 5.

Barron, R.W. & Baron, J. 1977. How children get meaning from printed words. Child Development. 48: 587-594. Chapter 6.

Beech, J. R. & Colley, A. (Eds.) 1987. Cognitive approaches to reading NY.:Wiley. 153.6 B414C. Chapter 5

Beech, J. R. & Harding, L. 1984. Phonemic processing and the poor reader from a developmental lag viewpoint. Reading Research Quarterly 19 3: 357-365. Chapter 6

Beech, J. R. 1985. Learning to read: a cognitive approach to reading and poor reading. London: Croom Helm. 372.43 B414L. Chapter 6

Bertelson, Paul. (Ed.) 1987. The onset of literacy: cognitive processes in reading acquisition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Chapter 6.

Besner, D. & Coltheart, M. 1979. Ideographic and alphabetic processing in skilled reading of English. Neuropsychologia. 17 467-472. Chapter 2.

Besner, Derek & G. Humphreys, Glyn (Eds.) 1991. Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition. Hillsdale, NJ. : Lawrence Erlbaum. Chapter 4, 5.

Biemiller, A. 1970. The development of the use of graphemic and contextual information as children learn to read. Reading Research Quarterly. 675-96. Chapter 6.

Biltmann, F. 1979. Functional analysis of the spelling ability of children in their third year of school: psychological arguments for spelling reform. Abstract only in Modern Language Abstracts. Chapter 6.

Bradley, L. & Bryant, P. 1983a. Categorising sounds and learning to read - a causal connection. Nature, 301, 419-421. Chapter 6.

Bradley, L. 1983b. The organisation of visual, phonological and motor strategies in learning to read and to spell. In U. Kirk (Ed.) Neuropsychology of language, reading and spelling. N.Y.: Academic Press. Chapter 6.

Bradley, L. 1985. Dissociation of reading and spelling behavior. In D. Douane & C. K. Leong (Eds.) Understanding Learning Disabilities. NY : Plenum Press. Chapter 6.

Bradshaw, J. L. 1975a. Three interrelated problems in reading: a review. Memory and Cognition, 3.: 123-134. Chapter 9.

Bradshaw, J. L. 1975b. Are we reading right? New Scientist 6 Feb :321-323. Chapter 5.

Broadbent, Donald. 1967. Word frequency effect and response bias. Psychological Review. 74: 1-15. Chapter 5.

Brooks, G. 1980. Deaf schoolchildren, reading and sign language. Journal of Research in Reading, 3: 98-105. Chapters 5, 6.

Brooks, L. R. & Miller, A. 1979. A comparison of explicit and implicit knowledge of an alphabet. In P. Kolers, M. Wrolstad, & Bouma, Eds. Vol l. op.cit. Chapter 6.

Bryant, P & Bradley, L. 1980. Why children sometimes write words which they do not read. In U. Frith (Ed.) Cognitive processes in spelling. London: Academic Press. Chapter 6.

Bryant, P. & Bradley, L. 1985. Children's reading problems: psychology and Education. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Chapter 6.

Bryant, P. & Goswami, U. 1987. Phonological awareness and learning to read. In J. Beech & A. Colley (Eds.) Cognitive approaches to reading. Chichester: John Wiley. 153.6. B414C. Chapter 5

Bryant, P. & Impey, L. 1987. The differences between normal readers and developmental and acquired dyslexics. In P. Bertelson (Ed.) The onset of literacy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Chapter 6

Bybee, Joan. 1985. Morphology. A study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 415 B993M Chapter 5.

Carbonell de Grompone, M. 1974. Children who spell better than they read. Academic Therapy Quarterly, 9 281-288.Chapter 5.

Carlisle, J. 1985. The relationship between knowledge of derivational morphology and spelling ability in fourth, sixth and eighth grades. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR-82/83. Chapter 5.

Carlisle, Joanne. 1987. The use of morphological knowledge in spelling-derived forms by learning-disabled and normal students. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR- 105-120. Chapter 5.

Carr, T. H. 1986. Perceiving visual language. in K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman & J. P. Thoma (Eds.) Handbook of perception and human performance. vol II. Cognitive processes and performance NY: J. Wiley & Sons. Chapter 5.

Chall, Jeanne. 1983a. Learning to read: the Great Debate. NY: McGraw-Hill.372.41 C437Le. Chapters 5 & 8.

Chase, P. N. & Parrott, Linda J. (Eds.) 1986. Psychological aspects of language. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 153.6 C487P . Chapter 4.

Chomsky, C. 1971. Write first: read later. Childhood Education. 47: 296-299. Chapter 6.

Chomsky, N. 1970. Phonology and reading. In H. Levin & J. P. Williams, Eds.) Basic Studies on Reading. NY: Basic Books. U372.41 L665B. Chapters 3, 4, 8.

Clark, M. 1976. Young fluent readers. London: Heinemann.Chapter 6.

Coltheart M. & Funnel. E. 1987. Reading and writing: one lexicon or two? In Allport, MacKay et al. op cit. Chapter 5.

Coltheart, M. (Ed.) 1987. The psychology of reading. Attention and Performance XII . London: Erlbaum. B428.4019C724P. Chapter 5.

Coltheart, M. , Patterson, K. &Marshall, J. C. (Eds.)1980. Deep dyslexia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Chapter 5.

Coltheart, M. 1978. Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood (Ed.). Strategies of human information processing. London: Academic Press. Chapter 5.

Coltheart, V., Loxon, V., Rickard, M. & Elton, C. 1988. Phonological recoding in reading for meaning by adults and children. Journal of Experimental Psychology: LMC 14: 387-397. Chapter 6.

Conrad, R. 1972. Speech and reading. In J. F. Kavanagh & I. G. Mattingly. (Eds.) op. cit. Chapter 5.

Derwing, B. L. & Dow, Maureen L. 1987. Orthography as a variable in psycholinguistic experiments. In Luelsdorff, P. A. (Ed.) op.cit. Chapter 5

Doctor, E. A. & Coltheart, M. 1980. Children's use of phonological encoding when reading for meaning. Memory & Cognition 8: 195-209. Chapter 6.

Downing J. 1979a. Linguistic awareness, English orthography and reading instruction. Journal of Reading Behavior 10: 103-114. Chapter 6.

Downing, J. & Leong, C-K. 1982. The psychology of reading. NY: Macmillan Publishing Co. 372.4019 D751P. Chapters 3, 5, 6.

Downing, J. & Thackray, D. 1975. Reading readiness. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Chapter 6.

Downing, J. & Valtin, R. (Eds.) 1984. Language awareness and learning to read. Springer. 372.4D751L. Chapter 6.

Downing, J. 1972. A re-examination of W. R. Lee's 'Spelling irregularity and reading difficulty in English'. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 12 2-4. Chapters 3,5,6.

Downing, J. 1979b. Reading and Reasoning.. Edinburgh: Chambers. 428.4071 D751R. Chapter 6.

Downing, J. 1987b. The transfer of skill in language functions. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 2: 5-12. Chapter 6.

Durkin, D. 1974-1975. A six year study of children who learned to read in school at the age of four. Reading Research Quarterly, 10: 9-61. Chapter 6.

Ehri, L. C. & Wilce, L. S. 1987. Does learning to spell help beginners learn to read words? Reading Research Quarterly. 22: 47-65. Chapter 6.

Ehri, L. C. 1980. The role of orthography in printed word learning. In J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky. (Eds.) op cit. Chapter 5

Ehri, L. C. 1984. How orthography alters spoken language competencies in children learning to read and spell. In J. Downing & R. Valtin (Eds.) Language awareness and learning to read. NY : Springer-Verlag.Chapter 6

Ehri, L. C. 1987. Learning to read and spell words. Journal of Reading Behavior. 19. 1: 7-19. Chapter 6

Ellis, A. (Ed.) 1985. Progress in the psychology of language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 401.9 E47P. Chapter 5.

Ellis, A. & Beattie, G. 1986. The psychology of language and communication. London: Heidenfeld &

 Evett, L. J. & Humphreys, G. W. 1981. Use of abstract graphemic information in lexical access. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 33A: 325-50. Chapter 10.

Fisher, 1975. Shapes as cues to word recognition. Visible Language. Chapter 5.

Flesch, Rudolf . 1955. Why Johnny can't read. NY: Harper & Row. 372.4 F611Wh. Chapter 8.

Fowler, C.A., Shankweiler, D. & Liberman, I. Y. 1979. Apprehending spelling patterns for vowels: a developmental study. Language & Speech 22: 243-252. Chapter 6.

Fowler, Carol. 1981. Some aspects of language perception by eye: the beginning reader. In O. Tzeng & H. Singer (Eds.) op. cit. Chapter 6.

Frith U. 1979. Reading by eye and writing by ear. In P. Kolers, M. Wrolstad & H. Bouma (Eds). The processing of visible language. . Vol 1. NY: Plenum Press. Chapters 5, 6.

Frith U. 1985b. In Margaret Clark (Ed.) New directions in the study of reading. London: Falmer Press. 372.4C594N. Chapters 5, 6.

Frith, U. & Frith, C. 1980. Relationships between reading and spelling. In Kavanagh & Venezky. op.cit. Chapter 5.

Frith, U. 1980. Cognitive processes in spelling. London: Academic Press. Chapters 3, 8, 10.

Frith, U. 1980. Unexpected spelling problems. In U. Frith (Ed.) op cit.Chapter 5

Frith, U. 1982. Cognitive processes in spelling and their relevance to spelling reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin, 22.1.6-9. Chapter 5., 7.

Frith, Uta. 1978. From print to meaning and from print to sound, or how to read without knowing how to spell. Visible Language 12: 43-54. Chapter 5.

Frost, R. 1989. Orthography and phonology: the psychological reality of orthographic depth. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR-99/100. 162-171. Chapter 5.

Gibson, E .J. & Levin. H. 1975. The psychology of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chapters 4, 5, 6.

Gibson, E. J., Shurcliff, A., & Yonas, A. 1970. Utilization of spelling patterns by deaf and hearing subjects. In H. Levin, & J. P. Williams, (Eds.) Basic studies on reading. NY: Basic Books. 372.41 L665B. Chapter 5.

Gibson, E. L. & Guinet, L. 1971. Principles of inflections in brief visual presentations of words. Journal of Verbal and Learning Behavior. 10: 182-189. Chapter 5.

Gillooly, W. B. 1973. The influence of writing system characteristics on learning to read. Reading Research Quarterly 8: 167-199. Chapter s 5, 6.

Glushko, R. J. 1981. Principles for pronouncing print. In A. M. Lesgold & C. A. Perfetti (Eds.) Interactive processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Chapters 4 and 6.

Goodman, K. S. (Ed.) 1968, 1973. The psycholinguistic nature of the reading process. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Chapter 5.

Goodman, K. S. & Goodman, Y. 1979. Learning to read is natural. In L. B. Resnick & P. Weaver (Eds.) Theory and practice of early reading. (Vol 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Chapter 5.

Goodman K. S. 1982. Language and Literacy: the selected writings of Kenneth S. Goodman. Vol II. Reading, Language and the Classroom Teacher F. V. Gollasch (Ed.) London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.153.6G653L.

Gordon, R. G. 1981. Symbolic manipulation of orthography. Doctoral thesis. Dissertation Abstracts International. 41.12. 5080A. Chapter 9.

Goswami, Usha. 1988. Orthographic analogies and reading development. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 40A 2: 239-268. Chapters 5, 6.

Gough, P. 1981. A comment on Kenneth Goodman. In M. L. Kamil (Ed.) Directions in reading. Washington: National Reading Conference. 92-95. Chapter 5

Gough, P. B. & Hillinger, M. L. 1980. Learning to read: an unnatural act. Bulletin of the Orton Society, 30. Chapter 6.

Gough, Philip. 1972. One second of reading. In J. F. Kavanagh & I. G. Mattingly. op cit. 331-358. Chapters 3, 4, 5.

Gough,P. 1985. One second of reading: Postscript. In H. Singer & R. B. Ruddell (Eds.) op. cit. Chapter 5.

Haber, L. R.,Haber, R.N., & Furlin, K. R. 1982 . Word length and word shape as sources of information in reading. Reading Research Quarterly. 18: 165-189. Chapter 5.

 Hanna, P. R. , Hodges, R., & Hanna, J. S. 1971. Spelling, structure and strategies. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 372.42H243S. Chapter 2, 3.

Hanna, P.R., Hanna, J. S., Hodges, R. E. & Rudorf, E. H. 1966. Phoneme-grapheme correspondences as cues to spelling improvement. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 421.4H243P. Chapters 3, 5.

Hanson, V. L. 1989. Phonology and reading. Evidence from profoundly deaf readers. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR-99/100. 172-179.

Henderson, L. (Ed.) 1984. Orthographies and reading. Perspectives from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and linguistics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. B428.4019 H496Or.Chapters 2, 5, 6.

Henderson, L. 1985a. Toward a psychology of morphemes. in A. W. Ellis (Ed.) Progress in the psychology of language. London: Erlbaum. Chapter 5, 7.

Henderson, Leslie, & Chard, Jackie. 1980. The reader's implicit knowlege of orthographic structure. In U. Frith (Ed.) op cit. Chapter 5.

Hoskisson, K. & Krohm, B. 1974. Reading by immersion. Elementary English 51 832-836. (Not an extreme version of this theory, however.) Chapter 8.

Huey, E. B. 1908/1968. The psychology and pedagogy of reading. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. 152.7 H888P. Chapters 4, 5.

Jacobson, Milton. 1974. Predicting reading difficulty from spelling. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 14. i. 8-10. Chapter 6.

Jarvella, R. J. & Snodgrass, J. G. 1974. Seeing 'ring' in 'rang' and 'retain' in 'retention': on recognising stem morphemes in printed words. Journal of Verbal and Learning Behavior. 13: 590-598. Chapter 5.

Johnston , J. C. 1981. Understanding word perception: clues from studying the word superiority effect. In O. J. L.Tzeng , & H. Singer, (Eds.) Perception of print: Reading research in experimental psychology. 153.6 T998P Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 65-84. Chapter 5.

Jorm, A. & Share, D. L. 1983. Phonological recoding and reading acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics 4 103-147. Chapter 6.

Katz, L. & Wicklund, D.A. 1971. Word scanning rate for good and poor readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62: 138-140. Chapter 5.

Katz, L. & Wicklung, D.A. 1972. Letter scanning rate for good and poor readers in grades two and six. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63: 363-367. Chapter 6.

Katz. L. 1985. Phonological deficiencies in children with reading disabilities: evidence from an object naming task. Cognition 27 250-257. Chapter 6.

Kavanagh, J. F. & Mattingly, I. G. (Eds.) 1972. Language by ear and by eye: the relationship between speech and reading. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press. B411K21.0 Chapters 3, 4.

Kay , J. 1987. Phonological codes in reading: Assignment of subword phonology. In D. A. Allport et al. op cit. 153.6.A44 1L. Chapter 5.

Kay, J. & Marcel, A. J. 1981. One process, not two, in reading aloud: lexical analogies do the work of nonlexical rules. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 33A: 397-414. Chapter 5, 6.

Kirk, Ursula (Ed.) 1983. Neuropsychology of language, reading and spelling. NY: Academic Press. 6168552. Chapter 5.

Kolers P. A. 1970 . Three stages of reading. In H. Levin & J. P. Williams. (Eds.) Basic studies on reading. NY: Basic Books. 372.41 L665B. Chapter 5.

Kolers, P. A. & Eden, 1968. Recognising patterns. American Journal of Psychology 82 2:248-253. Chapter 5.

Kolers, P. A. 1969b. Reading is only incidentally visual. In K. S. Goodman & J. T. Fleming (Eds.), Psycholinguistics and the teaching of reading.. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Chapter 4.

Kolers, P. A., Palef, S. R. & Stelmach, L. B. 1980. Graphemic analysis underlying literacy. Memory & Cognition. 8 :322-328. Chapter 10.

Kolers, P. A.1969a. on the geometric transformation of text. Perception and Psychophysics. Chapter 9.

Kolers, P.A. 1976. Reading a year later. Journal of Experimental Psychology.HMM 2 5: 534-565. Chapter 10.

2Kolers, P. A. , Wrolstad, M. & Bouma, H. (Eds.) 1979. The processing of visible language. NY: Plenum Press. 153K81P. Chapter 5.

 LaBerge, D. & Samuels, S. J. 1974. Towards a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology. 6: 293-323. Chapters 4, 5.

LaBerge, D. and Samuels, S.J. (Eds.) 1977. Basic processes in reading: Perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 428.4S955B. Chapters 4, 5, 9.

Lee, W. R. 1960. Spelling irregularity and reading difficulty in English. London: N.F.E.R. Chapters 5, 6.

Leong, C. K. 1989. The effects of morphological structure on reading proficiency - a developmental study. Reading and Writing: an interdisciplinary Journal. 1 357-379. Chapter 6.

Leong, C. K. 1991. From phonemic awareness to phonological processing to language access in children developing reading proficiency. In D. J. Sawyer & B. J. Fox (Eds.) Phonological awareness in reading. NY: Springer-Verlag. Chapter 6.

Lesgold, A.M. & Perfetti, C.A. 1981. Interactive processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. B153.6 L6291. Chapter 5.

Levin, H. & Williams, J. P. (Eds.) 1970. Basic studies on reading. NY: Basic Books. 372.41 L665B Chapters 3, 5, 6.

Liberman et al. 1979. Apprehending spelling patterns for vowels. Language and Speech 22 : 243-252 Chapter 5.

Liberman, I. & Shankweiler, D. (1985). Phonology and the problems of learning to read and write. Remedial and Special Education. 6 : 8-17. Chapter 6.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D. & Liberman, A. M. 1989. The alphabetic principle and learning to read. In D. Shankweiler & I. Liberman (Eds.) op.cit. 1-34. Chapter 6.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, A. M., Fowler, C. & Fischer, F. W. 1977. Phonetic segmentation and recoding in the beginning reader. In A. S. Reber & D. L. Scarborough (Eds.) Towards a psychology of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Chapter 6.

Liberman, I., Liberman, A. M. , Mattingly, I. & Shankweiler., D. 1980. Orthography and the beginning reader. In J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky (Eds.) op cit. Chapter 2, 6.

Luelsdorff, P.A. 1988. Orthographic complexity and orthographic acquisition. Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 50: 3-34. Chapter 6.

Luelsdorff, Philip A. (Ed.) 1987. Orthography and Phonology Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 411.L948.0. Chapters 2, 6.

Lukatela, G., Savic, M., Gligorijevik, B., Ognjenovic, P. & Turvey, M.T. 1978. Bi-alphabetical lexical decision. Language and Speech, 21: 113-141 and 142-165. Chapter 2.

Lukatela,G. , Popadic, Ogcjenovin, P. and Turvey, M. T. 1981. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR- 3. SR 73. Jan March.

Mann, V. & Ditunno, P. Phonological deficiencies: effective predictors of future reading problems. Haskins Laboratory Report. SR97-98: 1971-9.

Marsh, G., Friedman, M. , Welch, V. & Desberg, P. 1981. A cognitive-developmental theory of reading acquisition. In G. E Mackinnon & T. G. Waler(Eds.) Reading Research: Advances in theory and practice. NY: Academic Press. Chapter 6.

Marsh, G., Friedman, M. , Welch, V. & Desberg, P. Marsh, G. 1980. The development of strategies in spelling. In U. Frith (Ed.) op.cit. Chapter 5.

Masonheimer, P.E., Drum, P.A., & Ehri, L.C., 1985. Does environmental print identification lead children into word reading? Study reported by Ehri & Wilce, 1985, op. cit. Chapter 5.

Massaro, D. W. 1975. Primary and secondary recognition in reading. In D. W. Massaro, (Ed.) Understanding language: an information-processing analysis of speech perception, reading and psycholinguistics. NY: Academic Press. Chapter 5.

Massaro, D. W. 1984. Reading ability and knowledge of orthographic structure. Visible Language 1984 18: 323-332. Chapter 5.

Massaro, D. W. 1987. Integrating multiple sources of information in listening and reading. In D. A. Allport et al (Eds.) op.cit. 153.6 A441L. Chapter 5.

Massaro, D. W., Taylor, G. A., Venezky, R. L., Jastrzembski, J. E. & Lucas, P. A. 1980. Letter and word perception: Orthographic structure and visual processing in reading. Amsterdam: North-Holland. 150.724M414E. Chapter 5.

Massaro, D. W., Venezky, R. L., & Taylor, G. A. 1979. Orthographic regularity, positional frequency, and visual processing of letter strings. Journal of Experimental Pyschology: General. 108: 107-124. Chapter 5.

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Koda. 1987. Cognitive strategy transfer in second language reading. In J. Devine, P. Carrell, D. Eskey (Eds.) Research in reading in English as a second language. Washington: Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages. 127-149. Chapter .9

Kolers, Paul. 1966. Reading and talking bilingually. American Journal of Psychology. 79: 357-376. Chapter 5.

Kyöstiö, O. K. 1973. Written Finnish and its development. Spelling Progress Bulletin 13 .2:11-14. Chapter 2.

Kyöstiö, O. K. 1980. Is learning to read easy in a language in which the grapheme-phoneme correspondences are regular? In J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky. (Eds.) op cit. 1-11. Chapters 2, 6.

Kyöstiö.O. K. 1974. Letter to the Spelling Progress Bulletin 14 1. Chapter 2.

Landais, Joel. 1990. Uropi international language. (Personal communication). Chapter 2.

Lee Hyun Bok. 1988. Revised Korean spelling system. Korea Journal. 28: 4. Chapters 2,7.

Leeding, V. J. and Gudschinsky, S. C. 1974. Towards a more uniform orthography for Australian aboriginal languges. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Newsletter January 26-31. Chapter 7.

Leiner, M. 1987. Cuba. In R. F. Arnove & H. J. Graff (Eds.) op.cit. Chapter 7.

Leong, C. K. 1973. Hong Kong. In J. Downing (Ed.) op. cit. Chapter 2, 7.

Leong, C. K. 1986. What does accessing a morphemic script tell us about reading and reading disorders in an alphabetic script? Annals of Dyslexica. 36: 82-102. Chapter 2, 6.

Loyola, Emilia. 1973. Spanish spelling reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin 13 4. 19. Chapter 7..

Lukatela G. & Turvey, M. T. 1980. Some experiments on the Roman and Cyrillic Alphabets of Serbo-Croatian. In J. F. Kavanagh and R. L. Venezky (Eds.) op.cit. Chapter 2.

Lukatela, G., Lorenc, B., Ognjenovic , P., & Turvey, M.T. 1981. A word superiority effect in a phonetically precise orthography. Language and Speech 24 : 173-183. Chapter 5.

Makita, K. 1968. The rarity of reading disability in Japanese children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 38: 599-614. Chapter 2.

Malatesha R. N. & Whitaker, H.A. (Eds.)1984. Dyslexia: a global issue. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Chapter 6.

Malmquist, E. 1958. Factors related to disabilities in the first grade of the elementary school. Cited by Frith, 1980: 496. Chapter 6.

Martin, S. E. 1972. Nonalphabetic writing systems: some observations. In J. F. Kavanagh & I. G. Mattingly (Eds.), Language by ear and by eye. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chapter 2.

Matejcek, Z. 1976. Dyslexia in Czechoslovakian children. In L. Tarnapol & M. Tarnapol (Eds.) Reading disabilities - an international persepctive. Baltimore: University Park Press. Chapter 2

Mayhew, Robert. 1975. The historic Portuguese spelling reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin 15: 1. 5-6. Chapter 7.

Mentrup, W. 1988. Institut für Deutsche Sprache: Sprachreport 4/87. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 2 1: 32. Chapter 7.

Mills, H.C. 1955-56. Language reform in China. Far Eastern Quarterly, 15. Cha 7.

Mitchell, T. F. 1982. Some preliminary observations on the arabic koine. In W. Haas (Ed.) op. cit. Chapters 2, 7.

Morton, J. & Sasanuma, S. 1984. Lexical access in Japanese. In L. Henderson,( Ed.) op.cit. Chapter 2.

Moser. 1985. Teachers of Russian, the Revolutionary Wave of 1862, and Orthographical Reform. Slavic and East European Journal 29 : 422-436. Chapter 7

Mosterín, Jesús. 1982. Spelling reform in international perspective. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 12. 3: 5-7. Chapter 7

Nakano, U. & Suzuki, M. 1981. Reading and learning disabilities in Japan. In Tarnapol & Tarnapol (Eds.) op. cit. Chapter 2.

Namekawa, M. 1977. Reading in the Oriental way of thinking. Journal of Reading. 482-487. Chapter 8.

Nuntika, Jataputra. 1981. Orthographic reform in the Thai language. Dissertation Abstracts International 42.05. November . 8124915. Chapter 7.

Ognjenovic, V. , Lukatela, G, Feldman, L. B. & Turvey M. T.1983. Misreadings by beginning readers of Serbo-Croatian . Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR73 : 43-57. Chapter 5.

Omar, A. H. 1989. The Malay spelling reform. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 3. 2.: 9-13.

Oney, B. & Goldman, S. 1984. Decoding and comprehension skills in Turkish and English: effects of regularity of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. Journal of Educational Psychology 76: 557-568. Chapter 6.

Orlow, M. 1976. Literacy training in West Germany and the United States. Reading Teacher 29: 460-467. Chapter 7.

Park S & Arbuckle T Y. 1977. Ideograms v alphabets; effect of script on memory in 'biscriptual' Korean subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: HLM., 3: 631-642. Chapter 2.

Pascoe, G. 1988. L'academie des enfants. English Today 4.1:7. Chapter 7.

Patel, P. G. & Soper, H. V. 1987. Acquisition of reading and spelling in a syllabo-alphabetic writing system. Language and Speech. 30.1: 69-82. Chapter 3, 6.

Poonawalla, Ismail. 1974. Toward modernisation of Arabic. review in Spelling Progress Bulletin. 14 .4: 17.-18. Chapter 7.

Rabin, Chaim. 1977. Spelling reform - Israel. In Joshua A. Fishman (Ed.) op.cit. 411 F537A. Chapter 7.

reston, R.C. 1962. Reading achievement of German and American children. School and Society, 90: 350-354. Chapter 6.

Ringbom, H. 1987. The role of the first language in foreign language learning. Clevedon,Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Chapter 8.

Saito, H., Inoue, M. and Nomura, Y. 1979. Information processing of kanji and kana: the close relationship among graphemic, phonemic and semantic aspects. Psychologia 22 : 195-206. Chapter 2

Sakamoto, T. 1980. Reading of hiragana. In J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky (Eds.) op.cit. Chapter 2.

Sampson, G. 1985. Writing systems. London: Hutchinson.Chapters 3, 5.

Samuels, S. J. 1969. Cross-national studies in reading: the relationship between the sound-letter correspondence in language and reading achievement. In Figurel, J.A. (Ed.) Reading and realism. Newark, Del: IRA Chapter 2.

Sandefur, J. R. 1979. An Australian Creole in the Northern Territory: A description of Ngukurr-Bamyili dialects (Part 1). Working Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch. Series B. Volume 3. Darwin. Queensland: Jacaranda Press. Chapter 7

Sasanuma, S. 1975. Kana and Kanji processing in Japanese aphasics. Brain and Language, 2: 369-383. Chapter 2.

Sasanuma, S. 1984. Can surface dyslexia occur in Japanese? In L. Henderson(Ed.) op.cit. 43-56. Chapter 2.

Scheerer, E. 1987 .Visual word recognition in German, in A.Allport, D. MacKay, W.Prinz & E. Scheerer (Eds). Language perception and production: relationships between listening, speaking, reading and writing. London: Academic Press. 153.6 A441L. Chapter 2, 5.

Simplified Spelling Society Newsletter, Under "From Around the World": "Germany," SSSN Summer 1986, p.14

Simplified Spelling Society Newsletter, Under "Spelling Reform Around The World": "Germany," SSSN Summer 1985, pp.7-8

Skelton, J. 1988. Sound and symbol: the case of romaji. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 2 1.23-24.

Smalley, William A. (Ed.) 1964. Orthography studies: articles on new writing systems. London: United Bible Societies. 411 S635.0 Chaptes 2, 5.

Smalley, William A. 1964. How shall I write this language? In W. A. Smalley (Ed.) op.cit. 411 S635.0 Chapter 2.

Smalley, William A. 1964. The use of non-roman script for new languages. In W. A. Smalley (Ed.) op.cit. 411 S635.0. Chapter 2.

Steffensen, M.S., Joag-Dev, C., & Anderson, R.C. 1979. A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 15. 10-29. Chapters 2, 5.

Steinberg, D. D. & Yamada, J. 1978-1979. Are whole word Kanji easier to learn than syllable Kana? Reading Research Quarterly, 14: 88-99. Chapter 2.

Stevenson, H. W. 1984. Orthography and reading disabilities. Journal of Reading Disabilities 17 296-301. Chapters 5, 6.

Stevenson, H. W., Stigler, J. W., Lucker, G. W., Lee, S-Y, Hsu, Ch-Ch & Kitamara, S. 1982. Reading disabilities: the case of Chinese, Japanese and English. Child Development, 53:1164-1181. Chapters 2, 6.

Stevenson, H. W., Stigler, J. W., Lucker, G. W., Lee, S-Y, Hsu, Ch-Ch & Kitamara, S. 1985. Cognitive performance and academic achieement of Japanese, Chinese and American children. Child Development 56: 718-734. Chapters 2, 6.

Tarnapol, L. & Tarnapol M. 1976. Reading disabilities: an international perspective. Baltimore: University Park Press. F428.42R287. U3719T189L. Chapters 2, 7.

Tarnapol, L. & Tarnapol, M. 1981. Comparative reading and learning difficulties. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. 371.9T189C. Chapters 2, 7.

Taschow, H. G. 1976. Reading deficiencies in the German and English languages. In Merritt, J. E. (ed.) New Horizons in Reading. Newark, DE.: IRA. Chapter 7.

Taylor, I. & Taylor, M. 1983. The psychology of reading. NY: Academic Press. 153.6 T242P. Chapters 2, 5, 7. 10.

Taylor, I. 1980. The Korean writing system: An alphabet? a syllabary? A logography? In P.A. Kolers, M. E. Wrolstad, & H. Bouma (Eds.), Processing of Visible language. (Vol 2). NY : Plenum. Chapter 2.

Trouille, Jean-Marc, "Changes in the Spelling of Dutch," JSSS 1987/2, pp.14-16

Turvey, M.T., Feldman, L.B. and Lukatela, G. 1984. The Serbo-Croatian Orthography constrains the reader to a phonologically analytic strategy. In Henderson, L. Ed. 1984. Orthographies and Reading: Perspectives from Cognitive Pyschology, Neuropsychology and Linguistics. London: Laurence Erlbaum Chapter 2, 5 ,8.

Tzeng, O. J. L. & Hung, D. L. 1980. Reading in a nonalphabetic writing system. In J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky (Eds.) Orthography, Reading and Dyslexia. Baltimore: University Park Press. Chapters 2, 7.

Tzeng, O. J. L. & Wang, W. S-Y. 1983. The first two R's. American Scientist 71 238-243. Chapters 2, 5.

Tzeng, O. J. L. , Hung, D. L., Cotton, B. & Wang, W. S-Y. 1979. Visual lateralisation effect in reading Chinese characters. Nature . 282: 499-501. Chapter 5.

Tzeng, O. J. L. 1983. Cognitive processing of various orthographies. In Mae Chu-Chang (Ed.) op cit. Chapter 2.

Tzeng, O. J. L., Hung, D. L., and Wang, W. S-Y. 1977. Speech recoding in reading Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3: 621-630. Chapter 5 .

Unger, J. M. 1987. Computers and Japanese Literacy. Xin Tang (New China) 8: 24-49. In Chinese, Japanese and fortunately sometimes English. Chapter 2 , 7.

UP TO 1992

Urdaneta, I. P. 1982. The history of Spanish orthography. Andres Bello's proposal and the Chilean attempt. Implications for a theory of spelling reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin 22 :.3.p 8-14. Chapter 7.

Vaernewijck. 1973. Spelling reform in Dutch. Spelling Progress Bulletin 13 3. 14-15. Chapter 7.

Van Oosten, W. 1973. Spelling reform in the Netherlands. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 13. 3: 14-15. Chapter 7.

Venezky, R. L. 1973. The letter-sound generalisations of first, second, and third grade Finnish children. Journal of Educational Psychology 64: 288-292. Chapter 6.

Vikla, Martin. 1963. On Czechoslovak learning. Spelling Progress Bulletin 3.4: 14. Chapter 8.

Wang , W. S-Y. 1973. The Chinese language. Scientific American. 228 2. 50-60. Chapter 2.

Wang, P. C-T. 1978. Misinterpretations concerning the Chinese writing system.Papers in Linguistics. II. 2: 239-254. Chapter 2.

Wang, W. S-Y. 1981, Language structure and optimal orthography. In O. Tzeng & H. Singer (Eds.) The perception of print. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 223-236 .Chapter 1, 2.

Wang, W. S-Y. 1983. Speech and script relations in some Asian languages. In Mae Chu-Chang (Ed.) op cit. Chapters 2, 7.

Waters, G. S., Seidenberg , M. S. & Bruck. M. 1984. Children's and adult's use of spelling-sound information in three reading tasks. Memory & Cognition 12: 293-305. Chapter 6.

Weinberg, W. 1975. Special problems of the Hebrew spelling reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin 15 2-6. Chapters 2, 7.

Wen Hua 1974.. On reforming written Chinese. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 3 Chapter 7.

Williams, E. B. 1962. From Latin to Portuguese: historical phonology and morphology of the Portuguese language. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Chapter 7.

Xin Tang (New China.) Articles on pinyin. 7B vi 13. Chapter 7.

Yule, V. 1986d.. Considerations for the alphabetisation of Mandarin Chinese. Xin Tang. 7: 40-47. Chapter 7.

Yule, V. 1991. Indonglish. English Today. 26. 7: 42. Chapter 7.

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4. Historical,curious and funny pieces N 61

Barkley, William. 1967. A 20th century look at the New English of 1066. Spelling Progress Bulletin Summer. Chapter 8.

Benson, 1990. A language in decline? English Today. 6 4. 19-26.

Bernstein, B. 1971. Class codes and control, vol 1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Chapter 8.

Bodmer, F. 1955. The Loom of Language. London: Allen & Unwin. U400B668L. Chapter 3

Brown(e), Richard. 1707. The English School Reformed London: A. & J. Churchill. Chapter 7.

Bullokar, William. 1580. Bullokar's Booke at Large, for the Amendment of Orthographie for English Speech. London: Henrie Denham. Chapter 8.

Diringer, D. 1948. The alphabet: a key to the history of mankind. London: Hutchinson. Chapter 2

Fletcher, J. M. & Upton, C. A. 1988. The use of abbreviated English in Oxford 1483-1660. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 1 13-17. Chapter 8.

Follick, Mont. 1965 The case for spelling reform London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons. Chapter 8.

Franklin, B. 1768b. cited by Newell Tune, 1975. Homophones, Homographs and Heterographs. 2nd Edn. N. Hollywood, CA: Spelling Progress Bulletin. Chapter 3.

Franklin, Benjamin. 1768a. A Reformed Mode of Spelling. A Scheme for a New Alphabet and reformed mode of Spelling....written in the Characters of the Alphabet. Chapters 7, 8.

Gil, Alexander, 1619. Lognonomica Anglica. (See the account of 'one of the most brilliant spelling cranks of his age', and teacher of Milton, in A. N. Wilson's The life of John Milton, Oxford, O.U.P. 1983. ) Chapter 7.

Grandgent, C. H. 1964. Numeric reform in Nescioubia. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 4.3:5-6. Chapter 8, 10.

Hart, John. 1569 . An Orthographie, conteyning the due order and reason, howe to write or painte thimage of manne's voice, moste like to the life or nature. London: W. Serres. Chapters 7 , 8.

Hildreth, G. 1973. Puns in Shakespeare. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 13 .4: 3-6. Appendix 7.

Hodges, Richard. 1644. The English Primrose. London: Richard Cotes. Chapter 7.

Johnson, Samuel. 1755 . Preface to A Dictionary of the English language: in which the words are deduced from their originals. London: Knapton; Longman; Hitch & Hawes; Millar; & Dodsley. Chapters 1, 5.

Kennedy, A. G. 1972. Bibliography of books on the English language prior to 1922 Harvard/Yale University Press. Has 5 pages on spelling reform alphabets and simplified spelling - quite a number! Not available. Would be relevant to chapter 7.

Kipling , Rudyard. How the alphabet was made. Just-so Stories. Chapter 2.

Lepsius, Richard. 1863/1981. Standard alphabet for reducting unwritten languages and foreign graphic systems to a uniform orthography in European letters. Edited by J. Kemp. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Chapter 2.

Lewin, R. 1983. The biology of algae and other verses. NY: University Press of America. Chapter 3, 5.

Looby, C. 1984. Phonetics and politics: Franklin's alphabet as a political design. Eighteenth Century Studies. 18: 1-34. Chapter 7.

Miller, E. L. 1900. Literacy study and character formation. School Review. 8 285-291. Chapter 8.

Milton, John.1644. Areopagitica Prose Works. Chapter 8.

Mulcaster, Richard. 1582. The Elementarie. Chapter 8.

Paton, J. 1891. John G. Paton, D.D., Missionary to the New Hebrides London: Hodder & Stoughton. on how a Chief taught his people the Alphabet

Pierson, R. H. 1979. The Chicago Tribune's adventures in spelling. Spelling Progress Bulletin 19 3. 19. Chapter 7.

Porter, Gene Stratton. Laddie. See for Learning spelling and community spelling bees c 1870

Premack, D. 1971. Language in a chimpanzee? Science 172: 808-822.Chapter 2

Read, K, 1966. Devising the Shaw Script. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 6 .2: 11. Chapter 7.

Read, Kingsley.1962. Androcles and the Lion by Bernard Shaw, published in the Shaw alphabet by Penguin, 1962. Chapter 2.

Reed, William 1982. Spelling and Parliament. In Newell Tune (Ed.) Spelling reform, a comprehensive survey. North Hollywood, Calif: Spelling Progress Bulletin. pp 119-122. Chapter 8.

Scragg, D. G. (date? of later edition?), A history of English spelling. Manchester University Press. Chapter 3.

Simplified Spelling Society. 1924. The best method of teaching children to read and write: reports of experiments conducted in sixteen schools. (and in SSS pamphlet 7.1942) London: Simplified Spelling Society. Chapters 6, 7.

Skeat, Walter W. 1892. Principles of English Etymology . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chapter 3.

Smoker, Barbara. 1959. GBS and the ABC. The story of Bernard Shaw's Will. Modern Drama. 139-46. Chapters 7, 8.

Trench, Richard Chevenix. 1856. Changes in the spelling of English words. English, past and present. London: Parker & Son. Chapter 3.

Trenití, G. N. The Chaos. A version of this appears in the Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 1989, Summer, 17-21. Chapter 3. Appendix.

Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens). Simplified Spelling in Ancient Egypt. reprinted in Spelling Progress Bulletin 15.3.1975. Chapters 7, 8.

Twain, Mark. 1906. Spelling and Pictures. In The Works of Mark Twain,vol 18: 315-6. NY: Gabriel Wells. Edited version in B. Iles M.S. Thesis, in Spelling Progress Bulletin 1970. 10, pp19-20. Chapter 8.

Venezky, R.L. 1977. Research on reading processes: an historical perspective. American Psychologist, 32: 339-345. Chapter 5.

Webster, Noah. 1789. Dissertations and The reforming of spelling. In Old South Leaflets 8. No 196. Boston: Directors of the Old South Work. 1908, cited by Venezky , From Webster to Rice to Roosevelt, in U. Frith,(Ed.) op.cit, 1980.Chapters 7, 8.

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5. Clues that reformers should consider

52 References up to 1991

Note: For all of these see also:

Yule V(1991) Orthography and Reading: Spelling and Society, unpublished doctoral thesis, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Australia. UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48106. 1992.1416. Order No.9231850.

and Yule V (1986) 'The design of spelling to meet needs and abilities' in Harvard Educational Review, 56/3, pp 278 - 297.


q.v. especially Read and Yule


Smith Philip. 1980a. In defence of conservatism in English orthography. Visible Language 14: 122-136. Chapters 3, 5.

Smith, P. T. 1980b. Linguistic information in spelling. In U. Frith (Ed.) op cit.

Sampson, G. 1981. The advantages of English spelling. Revista Canaria de Studios Ingleses. (University of Tenerife) 3 : 1-13. Chapters 3, 5.

Steinberg, D. D. 1973. Phonology, reading, and Chomsky and Halle's optimal orthography. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 2: 239-258. Chapter 3.

Yule, Valerie. 1978. Is there evidence for Chomsky's interpretation of English


Venezky. R. L. 1977. Principles for the design of practical writing systems. In Joshua A. Fishman (Ed.) op cit. 411 F537A


Miller, G A. 1956. The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63: 81-9. Chapter 5.

Pitman, Sir James and St. John, John. 1969. Alphabets and Reading. London: Pitman. Chapters 3, 7, 8.

Pitman, Sir James. 1975. Some principles governing improvement of the visible language. Spelling Progress Bulletin 15.1. Chapter 6.

Shannon, C. E. 1951. Prediction and entropy of printed English. Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 50-64. Chapter 5.

Wing, Alan & Baddeley Alan (1980) 'Spelling errors in handwriting: a corpus and a distributional analysis' in Uta Frith (Ed.) Cognitive Processes in Spelling, London and NY: Academic Press. I have made an unpublished analysis of the types of errors AND(AND? YES) slips in the corpus. 04 Yule V. 1984a. English as an international language, and its spelling. Language Monthly 8 24-25. Chapter 8

Y ule, V. 1990. The design of spelling to meet abilities and needs of adult readers. In P. H. Peters (Ed.) Frontiers of Style. Sydney: Macquarie University Dictionary Research Centre. Chapter 9.

Yule, V. 1982a. Spelling reform: arguments pro and con. In N. Tune (Ed.) op.cit. 9-18. Chapter 7.

Yule, V. 1982b. An international reform of English spelling and its advantages. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 4: 9-22. Chapter 7.

Yule, V. 1982d. Spelling as technology. Rewritten by John Bell (technology writer) and published as 'Shorter words mean faster reading' in New Scientist 96 1335. 356-7. As Quine has commented in one of his books, concerning a magazine rewriting of his own work, 'here is the uncorrupted version'.

Yule, V. 1984b. Research and development in spelling reform. Spelling Progress Quarterly. 1.2: 6-13. Chapter 7.

Yule, V. 1986a. The design of spelling to match needs and abilities, Harvard Educational Review, 56: 278-297.


Allerton, D. J. Orthography and dialect. In W. Haas (Ed.) Standard languages spoken and written. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lauder, Affabeck. 1965. Less stalk Strine. Sydney: Ure Smith. Chapter 5

Melchers, G. 1987. Spelling and dialect. In P.A. Luelsdorff (Ed.) op cit. Chapter .2


Carvell, Robert. 1975. Reading comprehension and regularized orthography. Doctoral dissertation. ERIC ED116165. Chapters 5 , 7 & 9 .

Kuçera, H. & Francis, W. N. 1967. Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence, RI: Brown University Press. Chapter 9, Appendix.

Labov, W. 1970. The reading of the -ed suffix. In H. Levin & J. P. Williams. Basic studies in reading. NY: Basic Books. 372.41 L665B. Chapter 5.

Rayner, K. & Kaiser, J. 1975. Reading mutilated text. Journal of Educational Psychology 67: 301-306. Chapter 9.

Strange, 1979. The effect of orthographic anomalies upon reading behavior. Journal of Reading Behavior. 11: 153-161. Chapter 9.

Yule, V. & Greentree , S. 1986b. Readers' adaptation to spelling change. Human Learning 5: 229-241. Chapter 9.

Yule, V. & MacKay, C. K. Practice effects for adults and poor readers in reading text in a modified spelling . (Unpublished manuscript). Chapter 5, 9.

Yule, V. 1989b. Two experimental versions of 'cut' spelling. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 3.2: 30. Chapter 9.


Lane, A. 1974. Severe reading disability and the Initial Teaching Alphabet. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7: 23-27. Chapter 6.

Martin, J. H. & Friedberg, A. 1986, Writing to read. NY, Warner Books. Chapters 6, 7.

Martin, John Henry & Friedberg, Ardy (1986) Writing to Read: a parents' guide to the new early learning program for young children, New York: Warner Books.

Martin, John Henry (1981) 'The evolution and use of a phonemically consistent alphabet' in Spelling Progress Bulletin. 21/4, pp 7-10.

Thackray, D. V. 1980. Readiness to read with i.t.a. and t.o. London: Chapman. Chapter 6.

Thackray, Derek. 1971. Reading for meaning with i.t.a and TO. London: Geoffrey Chapman. Chapter 6.



Knowles, F. Information theory and its implications for spelling reform. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 1 5-13.


Klima, Edward. 1972. How alphabets might reflect language. In J. F. Kavanagh & I. Mattingly, (Eds.) op.cit. Chapters 2, 7. 9.

Nida, Eugene A. 1964. Practical limitations

to a phonemic alphabet. In W. A. Smalley (Ed.) op.cit. Chapter 2.


Mayzner, M. S., Tresselt, M. E. & Wolin, B. R. 1965. Tables of frequency counts for various word-length and letter-position combinations. (digrams, trigrams, etc.) Psychonomic Monograph Supplements 1, 1965a-1965c. Chapter 3.

Moseley, D & Nicol, C. c 1985. Aurally coded English spelling dictionary. Wisbeck, Cambridge UK: Learning Development Aids. Chapter 3.

Yule, V. 1980a, 1981. The etymological argument for spelling reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin 20. 4: 4, 21.3: 7-9. Chapter 3.

Yule, V. 1989a. Children's dictionaries: spelling and pronunciation. English Today 17. 1: 13-17. Chapters 6, 7.

Yule, V. Homophones in a spelling reform. (Unpublished manuscript). Chapter 3.


Bischoff, G. C. 1975. Improved spelling and the metric system. Saint Catherine Press. Exerpted in Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, 1989 .3.2. 21. Chapter 8.

Zachrisson, R. E. The advantages of an international language. Reprinted in Spelling Progress Bulletin. 1966.6 4: 14-9. Chapter 8.


Monteith, M. K. 1977. Paulo Freire's literacy method. Journal of Reading 628-631. Chapters 6, 7.


Frith, Uta, "Cognitive Processes in Spelling' 1980. Academic Press. This volume is a 'must' for spelling reformers, to understand how adults and children spell.

Frith, Uta, "Cognitive Processes in Spelling and their Relevance to Spelling Reform," Spelling Progress Bulletin, Spring 1982, pp.6-9


Smith, P. T. & Pattison, H. M. 1980c. English shorthand systems and abbreviatory conventions: a psychological perspective. In P. Kolers, M. Wrolstad & H. Bouma (Eds.) op cit. Chapters 2, 7.

Yule, V. 1987b. English spelling and pidgin: examples of international English spelling. English Today 4 .3: 29-35. Chapter 7.


Kerek, A. 1976. The phonological relevance of spelling pronunciation. Visible Language, 10 .4: 323-338. Chapter 7.


Jacobson, Sven.1966. Unorthodox spellings in American Trademarks. Stockholm. Almqvist & Wiksell. Chapter 7.

Jaquith, J. R. 1976. Digraphia in advertising: the public as guinea pig. Visible Language 10 .4: 295-308. Chapter 7.

Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1977. Spellings in commerce: logical? anathema? Reading World 16: 258-69. Chapter 7.


Lanham, L. W. 1968. Teaching English as a second language in Africa. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 8 4 9-12. Chapter 8.

O'Halloran, G. 1982. Spelling: What road to reform? Spelling Progress Bulletin. 22.4: 16-16. Chapter 2.

O'Halloran, George. 1980. A pedagogical purview of orthography. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 20.1: 13-15. Chapter 2, 8, 7.

Thonis, E. W. 1970. Teaching reading to non-English speakers. London: Collier-Macmillan. (Spelling is not in the index.) Chapter 8.

Yule, V. 1984b. Learning English as a double language. Language Monthly. 13: 23-25. Chapter 8.

Include also from Cornell Kimball's list

Baker, Robert, "An Experimental Study of Attitudes Towards English Spelling Reform," Spelling Progress Bulletin, Spring 1983, pp.6-11

Barbe, Walter B., Editorial, Spelling Progress Quarterly, Spring 1984, pp.2-3."We cannot forsake standard English overnight, so our path must be one of moderation. Most obviously, we must remain aware of how our language is changing, both overtly and subtly. ... Words like thru, nite, and alien are all around us and demonstrate that our language is constantly evolving."

Gregersen, Edgar, ìMorphological Consideration in the Creation of Rational Orthographies," Simplified Spelling Society Newsletter, Spring 1986, pp.14-17

Hanks, Patrick and Upward, Chris, "Feasibility of Spelling Reform,î JSSS 1988/2, pp. 24-28

Hofmann, Thomas R, "International Requirements for Spelling Reform," JSSS 1988/1, pp 20-22

Hutchins, Jean, "Wy dyslexics need simplifyd speling," JSSS 1989/1, pp.5-9

Jolly, C J H, "The Marketability of Spelling Reform," JSSS 1988/2, pp.17-19

Kerr, John S, "The Implication of Spelling Reform for Skilled Readers,î JSSS 1988/2, p.20

Scragg, Donald G, "English Spelling and its Reform: Some Observations from a Historical Perspective,î JSSS 1989/2, pp.4-8 [1988 Inaugural Address]

Stark, David, "Implementing Spelling Reform-An Introduction,î JSSS, 1989/1, pp.19-20 [a companion piece to is listed later in the bibliografy]

Upward, Christopher, Editorial, JSSS 1988/1, p.2 [Leapfrogging Webster] --Editorial, JSSS 1989/2, p.2 [Exploiting Alternative Spellings]

Upward, Christopher, Editorial, JSSS 1988/3, p.2, "Orthografic Ownrship: an aproach to winng suport for spelng reform?" Simplified Spelling Society Newsletter, April 1996, pp.6-11."If potential users needs ar not caterd for, those users canot hav a sense of ownrship and wil not be esily persuaded to adopt a reformd orthografy."

Wells, John C, "English Accents and their Implications for Spelling Reform," Simplified Spelling Society Newsletter, Summer 1986, pp.5-1

Yule, Valerie, "How to Implement Spelling Reform," Spelling Progress Bulletin, Fall 1980, pp.10-12. Spelling reform can only be achieved by looking at what is practicable, not at dogmatic idealism about what would be perfect; arguments must deal in evidence rather than in opinion."


This is not a list of all reform proposals and reformers - there are thousands. It is a short bibliografy of 43 publications relevent to spelling reform.

Beech, John. 1983. The effects of spelling change on the adult reader. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 23, 1. 11-18. Chapter 9.

Bisgard, Helen. 1987. Review of John Henry Martin 'Writing to Read'. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 1. 26. Chapter 6.

Bliss, C. K. 1965. Semantography , Sydney, Semantography Publications. C149.94BL12.2 Chapter 2.

Bonnema, Helen. 1961. Writing by sound: a new method of teaching reading. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 1.3: 7-10. Chapters 5, 8.

Campbell, Ruth, & Colthearth, Max. 1984. Ghandhi, the nonviolent road to spelling reform? Cognition 17:185-192. Chapter 5.

Campbell, Stuart. 1982. On Esperanto. Spelling Progress Bulletin. XXII. 3: 4-5. Chapter 7.

Downing, J. 1967. Evaluating the Initial Teaching Alphabet: A study of the influence of English orthography on learning to read and write. London: Cassell. U372.41 D75IE. Chapter 6.

Downing, J. 1977. The probability of reading failure in i.t.a. and t.o. Reading, 11: 3-12. Chapter 6.

Downing, J. 1980. Research on spelling reform. Spelling Progress Bulletin Spring. 20. 1. pp8-9

Ellis, A. J. 1848. A plea for phonetic spelling. London: Fred Pitman. Chapter 7.

Freire, Paulo. 1972. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin. C370.1Fre. Chapter 2, 6.

Freire, Paulo. 1974. Education in the practice of freedom. London: Writers and Readers Co-operative. Chapters, 2, 9.

Fry, E. B. 1964. A diacritical marking system to aid beginning reading instruction. Elementary English 41: 5. Chapter 6.

Gattegno, Caleb. 1964. Words in Colour system. Forward Trends 7 4: 141-144. Chapter 6.

Gogate , M. N. 1985. Adopting a common script - roman lipi. Times of India. 23 September. Chapters 7 & 8.

Gogate, M. N. 1988. Roman Lipi Parashad Conference Proceedings. Bombay. Chapter 7.

Haas, W. (Ed.) 1971. Alphabets for English. Manchester University Press. Chapter 7.

Harrison, Maurice. 1946. The use of simplified spelling in teaching infants to read and write. London: Pitman. Chapter 6.

Hildreth, G. 1978. Dictionary respellings of English words. Spelling Progress Bulletin 18 1 12-15. Chapter 7.

Iles, Betty. 1970. A study of selected systems of augmented alphabets and simplified spellings. M.S. Thesis. reprinted in Spelling Progress Bulletin 10 3. 2-26. Chapter 7

Jones, J. K. 1967. Colour Story reading. London: Nelson. Chapter 6.

Laubach, Frank. 1962. Learning English the new way. Syracuse, NY: New Readers Press. Chapters 6, 8,7.

Lindgren, Harry. 1969. Spelling Reform: a new approach. Sydney: Alpha Books. Chapter 3, 7.

Martin, John Henry. 1981. The evolution and use of a phonemically consistent alphabet. Spelling Progress Bulletin 21 4 7-10. Chapters 5,6, 7.

Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1967. Fourth year results of study with i.t.a. Spelling Progress Bulletin. 7. 4.: 2-6. Chapter 6.

Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1974. i.t.a. revisited. Reading World 13: 156-60. Chapter 6.

Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1975. Comparative attitudes and achievements of the 1963 i.t.a. and TO-taught students in the Tenth and Eleventh Grades. Reading World 14: 425-51. Chapter 6.

Mazurkiewicz, A. J. 1976b. Toward a spelling reform. Reading World 16: 81-87. Chapter 7.

Mazurkiewicz, A.J. (Ed.) 1966. The initial teaching alphabet and the world of English. NY: i.t.a. Foundation. Chapter 6 7.

Paulsen V. 1978. Torskript. San Francisco, CA: Torskript Publishers. Chapter 7.

Pei, Mario.1968. Preface to A. Tauber's A history of spelling reform. Reprinted in Spelling Progress Bulletin 8. Chapter 2.

Ripman, W. & Archer, W. 1948. New Spelling. London: Pitman. Chapter 7.

Rondthaler, E. and Lais, E. J. 1986. Dictionary of American spelling: a simplified alternative spelling for the English language, NY: the American Language Academy. Chapters 3, 7.

Scragg, D. G. 1989. English spelling and its reform: some observations from a historical perspective. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 2 4-8.

Stark, David, "2-The Principle of Minimal Interference," JSSS 1989/2, pp.22-24:"It may be an emotional response for someone to dismiss a new spelling as 'peculiar' or 'ridiculous' merely by looking at it. However, it will be easier to make them look a second time, and convince them that the new spellings are merely a more rational advance on the old ones, if the link with traditional orthography is clear."

Threadgall, Ronald A, ìThe Initial Teaching Alphabet: Proven Efficiency and Future Prospects,î Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 1988/1, pp.18 19

Tune, Newell (Ed.)1982. Spelling reform, a comprehensive survey. North Hollywood, CA: Spelling Progress Bulletin. Chapters 3 , 7.

Tune, Newell. 1982. Viewpoints on spelling reform. In N. Tune (Ed.) Spelling reform, a comprehensive survey. North Hollywood, CA: Spelling Progress Bulletin. pp 48-54. Chapters 7, 8.

Upward, C. , Fletcher, P., Hutchins, J. & Jolly, C. 1990. A handbook to Cut spelling. Aston, UK. Simplified Spelling Society. Chapter 9.

Upward, C. 1987b. Cut Speling - a linguistic universl? Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 2 17-24.Chapter 9.

Upward, C. 1988. Conflicting efficiency criteria in Cut Speling 1. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 3 17-23. Chapter 9.

Upward, C. 1989. Conflicting efficiency criteria in Cut Speling. 2. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 1 21-29. Chapter 9.

Warburton, F.W. & Southgate, V. 1969. i.t.a.: an independent evaluation. Edinburgh: Chambers.Chapter 6.

Wijk, Axel. 1959. Regularized English. Stockholm: Almqvist-Wiksell. Chapters 3, 7.

Wijk. 1975. Regularized English and the teaching of reading. Unpublished MS. Chapter 3, 7.

Writing to Read (J. H. Martin's project.) Evaluation documents are provided in ERIC from Tulsa Public Schools, 1985, Portland, Oregon, 1984, 1985, 1986, two Washington schools, 1983, Kettering, Ohio,1986-1988, Columbia District in Washington, DC, 1985, 1986, 1988, Tampa, Florida, 1987, New Hampshire, and Fort Worth, Texas, 1986, and also for groups of children with learning problems or other disabilities. Chapter 6.

Yule, Valerie (1980) 'A transitional spelling reform for adults and learners' in Spelling Progress Bulletin, 20/3, pp 7-10.

Yule V (1982) 'An international reform of English spelling and its advantages' in Revista Canaria de Estudios Inglese, Tenerife, 4, pp 9-22.

Yule V(1982) 'Spelling as Technology' in New Scientist. 96/1335, pp 656-657. (Rewritten by a hostile technical editor, with altered graphs, and retitled as 'Shorter words make faster reading' - which is not necessarily true.) .

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24 publications

Chall, J., Jacobs, V. A. & Baldwin, L. E. 1990. The reading crisis: why poor children fall behind. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 372.6C437R. Chapter 6

Citron, A.F. 1976. English orthography as conspicuous consumption. National Directory of Sociology of Education & Educational Sociology, 1, 16-23.Chapter 8.

Crystal, David. 1987a. The world's Englishes. English Today. July 33. Chapter 8.

Davies, Alan. 1989. Is international English an interlanguage? TESOL Quarterly. 23.3: 447-467. Chapter 8.

Entwistle, Doris. 1977. A sociologist looks at reading. In W. Otto, C. W. Peters, & N. Peters. (Eds.) Reading problems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 74-87. F372.43 R287 67211. Chapter 8.

Freire, P. 1987. Literacy, reading, the Word and the World. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey. 428.4F866L. Chapter 2, 6.

Gleick, James. 1987. Chaos. London: Cardinal. Chapters 4 , 8..

Labov, W. & Tobins, C. 1969. The relation of reading failure to peer group status in urban ghettoes. Teachers College Record. 70 5. Chapter 8.

Liamzon, T. A. 1986. Life-cycle of the New Englishes. English World-Wide. 37: 77-81. Chapter 8.

Marshall, J. 1987. Cultural and biological context of written languages. In J. Beech & A. Colley (Eds.) op.cit. Chapter 2.

Okakura, Yoshisaburo. 1932. The future of English as the world language. Studies in English literature. XII. 4. Tokio: Kenkyusha. Chapter 8.

Ong, W. J. 1980. Literacy and orality in our times, in a series on Literacy and the future of print, Journal of Communication 30: 197-204. Chapter 8.

Pattison, Robert. 1982. On literacy: the politics of the word NY: O.U.P. 001.2P 321.0 Chapter 8.

Porter, Rosalie. 1990. Forked Tongue - the Politics of Bilingual Education, NY: Basic Books . Chapters 2, 8.

Postman, N. 1970. The politics of reading. Harvard Educational Review. Chapter 8.

Resnick D.P. & Resnick, L.B. 1977. The nature of literacy: an historical exploration. Harvard Educational Review, 47: 370-386. Chapter 8.

Spivey, D. 1978. Schooling for the new slavery: Black industrial education 1868-1915. London: Greenwood Press. 371.9796073.S761S. Chapter 8.

Staczek, R. F. 1982. Societal multilingualism. In J. Fishman & G. D. Keller (Eds.) op. cit. Chapter 2.

Stedman, L. R. & Kaestle, C. F. 1977. Literacy and reading performance in the United States, from 1880 to the present. Reading Research Quarterly 12: 8-46. Chapter 1.

Teale & Sulzby 1987, in Wagner, D. (ed.) 1987. The future of literacy in a changing world. Oxford: Pergamon. 370.194 W132. Chapter 2.

Turner, Martin. 1990. Sponsored reading failure. Surrey: IPSET Educational Unit. Chapter 8.

UNESCO 1965. Literacy as a factor in development. Paris: UNESCO. Chapter 8.

UNESCO and UNDP Secretariat. 1976. The experimental world literacy program: a critical assessment. Paris: UNESCO. Chapter 8.

Veblen, Thorstein. 1899. Theory of the leisure class. Republished 1925 by Allen & Unwin, London.

Vernon, M.D. 1957. Backwardness in reading. London: Cambridge University Press. Chapter .6

Vernon, M. D. 1971. Reading and its difficulties. London: Cambridge University Press.

Viereck, W. & Bald, W-D (Eds.) 1986. English in contact with other languages. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. 420.9 V665E. Chapter 7.

Waples, D. 1967. What reading does to people. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chapter 8.

Yule, V. 1986c. A complement to 'Bullock': the American report 'Becoming a Nation of Readers'. Reading (U.K.) 20. 2.: 82-88. Chapter 6.

Yule, V. 1988c. The importance of spelling for English culture. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society 2. 2: 29-31Chapters 3, 8.

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Back to Spelling Index Page

Further pages on spelling:

 1. Introduction

Introduction to spelling improvement. /spockham.htm. Text of a radio broadcast
Rationale. How assumptions and barriers against improving the writing system do not hold. Answering the common objections to spelling improvement. /sration.htm

2 Needs and abilities of users and learners: -

i. Needs and abilities of readers /sreadsp.htm
ii. Needs and abilities of writers to spell - /swritsp.htm
iii. Needs and abilities of learners - /slernsp.htm
iv. Needs and abilities of users of international English - /sintrnt.htm
v. Spelling reform for the Internet (an older page)

3. The nature and teaching of English spelling

See the online video,
The underlying English spelling system that could be made more consistent
Spelling patterns for the English vowels
The Book of Spells & Misspells
- a treasury of spelling for everyone
22 Lessons in reading and spelling
The 16 word spelling test for anyone who thinks they can spell
Spelling and classroom practices - sclassprac.htm

4 Improving English spelling

Spelling improvement. 2002.
Seven principles to repair English spelling, 2005
Cutting out the surplus letters in words.Streamline - a first step in updating spelling.
Quik gidelines for a next step, with sampl texts, and furthr notes. FASTR Spelling
Cutting out surplus letters. 2002
Further steps you can try yourself, with f, j, consistent word endings and vowel spellings.
Further experiments to spel sensibly - Pronunciation and gramr, and a final solusion? 2000
The future of English spelling. What can be done?

5. Spelling as an entertainment

Spelling Games - starting with a Spelling ABC - different from a Spelling BEE
16-word Spelling Test of 16 common words that few experts can spell all correctly.
International English Spelling Day, October 9
How people spelled when they spelled as they liked before the 18th century dictionaries
Don Quixote spells in 'Spelling without traps'. - To come
Twelve Short Short storys about the fùtùr. Can u imagin a mor ùser-frendly speling sistem? Look at every wurd to see if u think its speling is a trap for lerners.